Caracterización del inmigrante afrocatalán

Procedencia: Los africanos generalmente utilizan trayectorias diferentes para llegar a Cataluña. La inmensa mayoría de los inmigrantes (sobre todo los que llegaron primero) vinieron con un visado obtenido a partir de las representaciones españolas en los sus respectivos países, a menudo a partir de Mauritania o de un país del África occidental y central (Costa de Marfil, Gabón, la República Sudafricana, Congo, etc.).

          Últimamente, un número importante de «recién llegados» ha pasado, vía Marruecos, por Ceuta y Melilla, los enclaves españoles de África del Norte. Y, además, con el fenómeno de los cayucos, la situación se ha complicado, debido a que  las salidas se organizan ahora desde los mismos países.

          En este sentido, es  cada vez más difícil determinar con certeza los lugares de procedencia. Esta situación se explica debido a que tanto los parámetros y los factores que acompañan la emigración como las trayectorias son cada vez más complejas.

          Donde se ubican: en Cataluña, la situación espacial de los africanos es muy diversificada. Están presentes en las cuatro provincias. El mayor número de africanos se observa en la provincia de Barcelona, ​​ y más concretamente en las comarcas del Vallès Oriental(Granollers, Canovelles, La Garriga), Vallès Occidental (Terrassa, Sabadell), el Maresme (Mataró, Calella, Pineda) y el Barcelonés (Barcelona, ​​Badalona, L’Hospitalet, Cornellà y Sant Boi de Llobregat). Últimamente, un nuevo flujo intenso de inmigrantes africanos se observa hacia las comarcas del Bages (Manresa) y del Berguedà (Berga).

          Según el Anuario Estadístico de Cataluña, durante el año 2006 ha habido más de 209.049 africanos viviendo legalmente en Cataluña, de los cuales casi 163.589 son de Marruecos. En la provincia de Barcelona es donde hay más africanos: 120.282, de los cuales 99.196 son de Marruecos, 4.335 son gambianos y 4.732 son senegaleses. (Anuario de Estadística de Cataluña, 2006, Instituto de Estadística de Cataluña. 208)

          La segunda provincia donde los africanos están presentes es la de Girona. Las comarcas El Gironès (Girona, Salt), del Pla de l’Estany (Banyoles) y del Alto y del Bajo Empordà (La Bisbal, Palafrugell y Figueres) acogen numerosos hogares de inmigrantes gambianos, senegaleses, malienses y guineanos.

          Finalmente, en la provincia de Tarragona, los africanos también habitan en el Tarragonès (Tarragona, Salou) y el Baix Ebre (Tortosa), mientras que en Lleida se encuentran en las comarcas del Pla de l’Urgell (Mollerussa), el Segrià (Lleida, Soses, Alcarràs, Aitona) y la Segarra (Guissona).

          En que trabajan: Los africanos que viven en la provincia de Barcelona ejercen profesiones tan diversas como heterogéneas. La concentración más grande de africanos es, en esta  provincia, en Granollers y las pequeñas ciudades de alrededor, Terrassa, Sabadell, Mataró, Calella, Rubí, Vic, Malgrat de Mar, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat y Mollet Santa Rosa. Estas ciudades ofrecen un abanico de posibilidades laborales que de la horticultura de los invernaderos en la hostelería, de las fábricas a los servicios del sector terciario (limpieza, guardia, etc.), del comercio en las actividades autónomas (bares, restaurantes, locutorios, etc.), de la construcción en las actividades a veces puramente informales (intermediaciones-en francés: courtage-, importación y exportación, transporte). Un número importante de africanos (la gran mayoría senegaleses) trabaja en la venta ambulante en las calles de las grandes ciudades de la provincia de Barcelona y extienden su red al resto del Estado español.

Autor: Moises Bolekia

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