Desarrollo del pensamiento prosocial

Uno de los aspectos fundamentales que tiene que ver con la emisión de comportamientos disociales es la vertiente de los pensamientos o cogniciones que los sostienen. Entre la población penitenciaria es frecuente detectar un bajo nivel de capacidad de resolución de problemas interpersonales, por lo que una estrategia muy extendida ha sido la resolución cognitiva de problemas interpersonales, basada en la técnica de resolución de problemas.

De Zurilla Y Goldfried (1971). Se trata de aprender a identificar y definir en términos operativos un problema, reconocer los sentimientos que genera al sujeto, diferenciar hechos reales y opiniones subjetivas, recoger todas las alternativas posibles de resolución para tomar en consideración sus consecuencias probables y, finalmente , tomar una decisión y llevarla a la práctica.

Otros desarrollos técnicos en el marco cognitivo, que también se han aplicado en los programas de tratamiento a cárceles, son el entrenamiento en auto de Meichenbaum (1977 ) , la reestructuración cognitiva de BECK ( BECK y FREEMAN , 1990 ) , la terapia racional emotiva de ELLIS (1981 ) o la reestructuración racional sistemática de Goldfried y Goldfried (1987 ) .

Los programas que se agrupan bajo la denominación de desarrollo del pensamiento prosocial parten del concepto de que los trastornos del comportamiento son consecuencia de ciertas dificultades en el procesamiento de la información, de modo que existen pensamientos automáticos (no controlados por el sujeto) que constituyen distorsiones en la manera de interpretar las situaciones, y se deriva una conducta inadecuada. Enseñando técnicas de auto-observación de estas distorsiones, para hacer interpretaciones más racionales y ajustadas a la realidad, se pretende que el individuo sepa responder de manera alternativa a la conducta disociar.

También en el terreno cognitivo, pero en lo que podríamos llamar en un nivel finalista en el tratamiento, encontramos las técnicas destinadas al desarrollo moral, basadas en la teoría del desarrollo moral de Piaget y los estudios de Kohlberg, que diferenció estadios de desarrollo moral. Las técnicas aquí empleadas perseguirían favorecer el desarrollo moral de los sujetos hacia estadios superiores, donde se alcancen aspectos altruistas y empáticos (PALMER, 2003).

La primera verdadera sistematización de estas técnicas cognitivas expuestas en un programa diseñado para delincuentes fue en Canadá, con Ross y su equipo de trabajo , que revisaron los programas de tratamiento aplicados a su entorno y concluyeron que los más efectivos eran los que trabajaban para modificar los mecanismos de pensamiento de los delincuentes ( ROSS y FABIANO , 1985 ) y , consecuentemente, desarrollar un programa multifacético de abordaje cognitivo , que incorporaba diferentes técnicas cognitivas que habían demostrado que eran eficaces .

Este programa se ha adaptado a muchos países y se ha aplicado de manera general. Ha sido uno de los ejes de la intervención en las prisiones catalanas durante muchos años, con resultados satisfactorios. Más adelante se expone con detalle.

(Generalitat de Catalunya. Departamento de Justicia)

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