Desarrollo sostenible en Perú – 6 parte –

Las reservas existentes de carbón bituminoso en 1991 ascendían las cinco millones de toneladas, al mismo tiempo que las reservas de antarcita en ese mismo año, alcanzaban los 60 millones. Ya en los últimos años se puede encontrar también una disminución en las reservas de carbón mineral, lo que podría explicarse debido al aumento de la extracción en los años 1992 y 1993. En el Perú la producción de carbón mineral es muy pequeña en comparación con la de petróleo. Después del año 1986 se observaron continuas caídas en la producción del carbón mineral. También, la intervención de las importaciones en la oferta total ha aumentado progresivamente, llegando a representar el 81.7% en el año 1994.

El carbón mineral se consume por el sector de la industria y las actividades de pesca, minería y agricultura. No obstante,  esto representa una proporción escasamente significativa del consumo total de energía de esos sectores. También se utiliza como insumo para la producción de coque.

La distribución del uso del carbón para la producción de energía y otros usos se describen en el orden de los 710 597 megawatt hora en el mercado electico y 158 073 de generación propia[1].

– Gas natural:

En el particular del gas natural, las reservas se han logrado mantener constantes en buena medida desde el año 1988 cuando se descubrieron los yacimientos que se encuentran en Camisea, poseyendo un monto total de 6,900 miles de millones en pies cúbicos de reserva probada de gas. Hasta la actualidad no existen proyectos para la explotación de los amplios yacimientos de dicho recurso, lo que no posibilita la elaboración de conclusiones sobre su estado de depredación.

Dentro de los balances energéticos presentados por el Ministerio de Energía y Minas, aparece el gas natural como un recurso desaprovechado. De la energía que cuenta como no aprovechada, el único recurso que se encuentra es el mencionado gas natural. En el año 1994 se llegaron a producir 5 millones 961 miles de b.e.p., y de estos 4 millones 500 mil se desaprovecharon.

En la región de Piura, la distribución de la producción de gas natural se puede observar en la tabla siguiente:

 

 

REGION PIURA: PRODUCCION DE GAS NATURAL, 1990 – 2010

(Millones de Pies Cubicos de Gas Neto)

Año

Total

Costa

Zócalo

1990

35 875

10 891

24 984

1991

33 931

11 019

22 912

1992

29 841

9 263

20 578

1993

31 438

9 599

21 839

1994

33 825

10 653

23 172

1995

32 147

9 182

22 965

1996

30 824

8 200

22 624

1997

33 758

8 172

25 586

1998

34 053

8 466

25 587

1999

32 798

9 212

23 586

2000

34 468

8 925

25 543

2001

33 285

9 398

23 887

2002

33 324

9 502

23 822

2003

35 206

10 638

24 568

2004

35 319

10 678

24 641

2005

34 996

11 136

23 860

2006

35 229

11 311

23 918

2007

37 884

13 601

24 283

2008

39 448

15 394

24 054

2009

39 735

15 844

23 891

2010

43 833

16 642

27 191

Fuente: Ministerio de Energia y Minas – Direccion General de Hidrocarburos

-Biomasa energética:

La biomasa constituye una fuente de energía no comercial, en los que se  incluyen recursos como el bagazo,  la leña, la bosta y yareta. Estas son usadas básicamente por el sector rural, sobre todo la leña, y se consideran como recursos primarios debido a que son provistas directamente de la naturaleza. La contabilidad de los recursos de biomasa energética aún no se ha logrado desarrollar lo suficiente. En la actualidad se conoce que las reservas de leña se remontan a 24 millones 165 mil toneladas y en cuanto a las reservas de bagazo alcanzan los 2 millones 850 mil toneladas.

Aun sabiendo que las estimaciones del inventario de los recursos mencionados no son muy exactas, permiten confirmar la gran importancia de esta fuente de energía en el Perú. En el año1994, del consumo final de energía, el 36.6% corresponde a los recursos de bagazo, caña, leña, bosta y yareta.

Su consumo está fuertemente relacionado al consumo de energía del sector rural residencial en el caso de la leña,  y el agrícola en el caso del bagazo y bosta. En el sector residencial, la existe una dependencia de la  leña debido a la ausencia de servicios eléctricos.



[1] Fuente: Ministerio de Energia y Minas – Direccion General de Electricidad.2010

Autor: Bernardo

350 pensamientos en “Desarrollo sostenible en Perú – 6 parte –

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