Desarrollo sostenible en Perú

      404 comentarios en Desarrollo sostenible en Perú

Lamentablemente Perú es un país con dificultades económicas, siendo difícil implementar políticas que tengan como objetivo el desarrollo sostenible, siendo una de las principales causas que el estrato socioeconómico más vulnerable es altamente reacio a esperar resultados a largo plazo (ofrecidos por el desarrollo sostenible) sino que presiona por las llamadas “políticas populosas” o a corto plazo.

Como se ha visto, el desarrollo sostenible es practicado por los países desarrollados, estas naciones adecuaron sus necesidades y su marco legal, a la producción de bienes y servicios con un respeto, en mayor o menor medida, hacia las necesidades a futuro de la población.

En este sentido, el desarrollo sostenible se ejemplifica en Perú con un cambiante marco legal que se adapta  a las necesidades del momento y al capricho político de turno. La legislación se interrelaciona entre los diferentes sectores como consecuencia de la globalización.

De este modo, el Estado de Perú promueve un desarrollo sostenible siempre condicionado al objetivo político y social, por tanto, se presenta como secundario. A continuación se presenta un cuadro resumen de las bases del desarrollo sostenible en Perú.

 

En Perú se empieza a hablar de desarrollo sostenible a partir de la década de los setenta, cuando se evidencia que los recursos naturales son limitados, y que por tanto, se pondría en peligro a largo plazo el crecimiento económico de país.

Destacar el libro “Los límites del crecimiento” de 1972, en el cual se criticaba la política depredadora hacia los recursos naturales del momento. De este modo, la obra ayudó a que el país tomará conciencia sobre los recursos naturales y se percataran que las actividades humanas  deterioran el medio ambiente (capa de ozono, ríos, tierra fértil, fauna, flora, etc.)

Se interpone la concepción de Colby y Sagasti denominada  “economía de la frontera”[1], que concebían los recursos naturales como ilimitados, contrapuesto con la visión de la ecología profunda, que plantea que  “!el hombre destruye la naturaleza con sus opciones y es él el que debe adaptarse a su entorno, entre otras cosas reduciendo el crecimiento poblacional”[2]

A partir de ese momento, los estudios sobre medio ambiente y desarrollo sostenible han sido estrechamente relacionados. Revolucionando la teoría tradicional de desarrollo y concibiendo que elevar la renta per cápita en detrimento de los recursos del futuro, no es un crecimiento viable a largo plazo. Por tanto, lo importante es crecer económicamente y garantizar este ciclo a lo largo del tiempo, renovando los mismos recursos que se consumen.

Los conocedores del tema, han determinado tres partes conceptuales, del desarrollo sostenible, representado por el aspecto ambiental, el aspecto económico y el aspecto social. El establecimiento de un equilibrio entre todas ellas representa la clave del éxito y de un resultado óptimo en lo que a desarrollo sostenible se refiere.

En relación a los recursos forestales, Perú se presenta como uno de los países con más extensión de bosque, conformando este un 55% de la totalidad del territorio peruano, o lo que es lo mismo, 129 millones de hectáreas.

De igual forma, los bosques peruanos se caracterizan por su gran diversidad, en este sentido, en el Parque Nacional Yanachaga-Chemillén (Oxapampa) se calcula que existen entre 5,000 y 10,000 especies en sus 122,000 hectáreas de extensión, a diferencia de los bosques de clima templado que se distinguen por la homogeneidad de las especies que albergan. [3]



[1] Sagasti, F y M. Colby (1994) “Eco-Development and Perspectives on Global Change from Developing Countries” en Choucri Nazli, ed. Global Accord: Environmental Challenges and International Responses. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

 

[2] Pascon (1999), Desarrollo Sostenible en el Perú, Lima

[3] Pascon (1999), Desarrollo Sostenible en el Perú, Lima

Autor: Bernardo

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