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El modernismo, proceso histórico causante de grandes cambios en el pensamiento, vida y forma de ver el mundo: el hombre comenzó a dudar del dogma, a darse importancia como individuo; se conoció y se creyó capaz de generar cambios, dándole realce a la subjetividad, imaginación y creación artística. El marxismo, tiene así una cabida trascendental en este nuevo esenario, pues propone una doctrina nueva y filosófica, que le da a la historia un sentido teleológico a partir del trabajo y la economía.

La historia, para Marx, se divide según la dominación que ha sufrido el explotado, la cual ha tomado diversas fases a lo largo de la historia hasta llegar a la época moderna, donde el burgués se convierte en capitalista y domina al obrero o proletario , generándose una relación unilateral, pues siendo el objetivo del capitalismo, la acumulación del capital, y el sueldo del trabajador uno de los costos que puede reducirse, sin necesidad de reducir su capacidad productiva, se explicíta rápidamente la explotación del asalariado. El obrero está, además, obligado a trabajar para subsistir ya que en su especie son muchos y la demanda de ellos no siempre es superior a la oferta, por lo que el sobrante de su especie debe morir, para poder mantener un buen precio sobre ellos.

Esta forma de “contratar” a un obrero, lo convierte en un objeto más del mercado, del cual su precio (salario), depende directamente de la oferta y la demanda, por ende sufre las consecuencias tácitas del liberalismo al cambiar alguna de estas variantes. Así, queda marginado de su propia vida, no puede determinarse a sí mismo, sino que por la necesidad de trabajar. Para que una sociedad pueda cultivarse, evolucionar, debe tener tiempo para crear y gozar espiritualmente; eliminar la esclavitud, sobre todo las referidas a las necesidades personales. Aquí donde radica uno de los problemas del marxismo, que permite dar cabida al arte y al artista: si el obrero es tratado como objeto, y se ve apremiado por sus necesidades personales; y el burgués o terrateniente, esta en una constante búsqueda que le permita seguir acumulando su capital, ¿dónde queda entonces la figura de este hombre creativo?

productivo. en el que el individuo puede desarrollarse a sí mismo, y en el lo que se vende es lo subjetivo del trabajo. Ya no es el producto que producirá un valor monetario, y que no le deja nada a cambio al obrero, sino que: mientras más produce un obrero en cuanto objetos materiales, menos gana para sí mismo .

La parte subjetiva del trabajo, parte creativa de alguien, la idea que lo impulsa a crear, el motor que lo lleva a realizar un producto nuevo, que toma valor por la idea, personal, que ahí está puesta. Así, lo que se plantea, este “creador” es lo que vendría a ser el valor de cambio, lo que le da el valor al objeto. Claramente, el arte se manifiesta en el “trabajo vivo”, pues el objeto ya ha abandonado su categoría productiva materialmente, se le empieza a reconocer por su sentido estético, su sentido de creación. Ha adquirido valor por la intencionalidad del sujeto creador, por la voluntad creativa, libre y subjetiva que él le transmite o le impone.

Esta gran diferencia entre el individuo que crea y el que produce, será fundamental pues el primero no se enajena de sí mismo a través del trabajo, no se objetiviza. Este ser, el artista, se vincula mucho más consigo mismo, tiene el tiempo para recrearse, para cultivar su espíritu y crear. Es el ser que puede evolucionar libremente, sin embargo, pareciera ser que para Marx carece de importancia, pues su intención es explicar el proceso de dominación capitalista y su dualidad con el proletario para darle el sentido teleológico que pretende a su doctrina. De este modo, deja al artista como un ser ajeno a la sociedad, marginado o separado.

Sin embargo, el artista, que se encuentra al margen de la sociedad, puede realizarse, puede dar rienda suelta a su creatividad e inventar obras que, a su vez, son también libres. De ellas puede sacar provecho como objeto original, innovador y subsistir, pues el arte se vende no solo como objeto (caso del artesano), sino por su subjetividad. Así, el artista queda libre del capital. Sin lugar a dudas, para el desarrollo de la concepción marxista sobre el arte y el artista, fue fundamental todo el debate generado con anterioridad sobre el lugar que debe tomar el arte entre el mundo material y espiritual, o entre lo natural y trascendental, e incluso entre lo fenoménico y nouménico. Se podría, incluso, especular que debido a todo el debate ya existente Marx no da tiempo al desarrollo de esta forma de vida, pues ya estaba lo suficientemente tratada, lo que le permitiría dedicar su tiempo en exclusividad a su tesis marxista de la historia, tanto en la teoría como en la práctica de la misma.

Escritor: ELISA INES MASSARDO

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