ALTERNATIVA DE CULTIVOS HERBÁCEOS EN PARCELA UBICADA EN EL REINO DE NAVARRA – 2 parte –

3.1    Localización.

El lugar para desarrollar la alternativa de cultivo se desarrollará en Navarra. Actualmente, la superficie de cultivo de trigo ronda las 60.000 hectáreas, de las cuales el trigo berdún ocupa entre el 70 y 80% del cultivo.

La localización para implementar el cultivo será la zona central del reino de Navarra, más concretamente en las áreas de Pamplona. Se presenta el siguiente mapa.

Coordenadas geográficas: W 1º 48,38.38”  –  W 1º 47,47.04”

N 42º 47,35.52” – N 42 47,9.6”

3.2    Capacidad o dimensión del anteproyecto.

Extensión de la parcela: el proyecto se realizará en una parcela con unas dimensiones aproximadas de 40.000 metros cuadrados.

3.3    Objetivos de proyecto.

General.

Desarrollar un anteproyecto basado en una alternativa de cultivos herbáceos (trigo  blando berdúm) en una parcela ubicada en las áreas de Pamplona (Reino de Navarra).

Específicos.

  • Realizar un estudio de las condiciones climáticas, edafológicas de la zona objeto de cultivo.
  • Desarrollar un proceso y programa productivo, fundamentados en la viabilidad económica y rendimiento del proyecto.

 4.  MOTIVACIÓN DEL ANTEPROYECTO. 

4.1  Motivación del anteproyecto.

La selección de un cultivo, acorde con las características del terreno, es fundamental para el éxito de la cosecha, cada vez más, aspectos como la demanda de productos, márgenes de rentabilidad y sencillez en el cultivo cobran importancia.

Se ha seleccionado el trigo (a pesar de ser un cultivo cuya producción no es comercialmente interesante), por ser un cereal universal, es decir, se da practicamente en todos los lugares del mundo, por su alto valor nutritivo (es altamente rico en gluten), en materias nitrogenadas y en materias grasas.

El trigo es poco exigente en cuanto al clima. Actualmente puede desarrollarse bajo climas muy diferentes, gracias a la selección de semillas y a las diferentes variedades.

El trigo puede ser sembrado antes o después del invierno, según la latitud y el clima. En el primer caso se obtiene el trigo llamado de invierno, cuyo rendimiento es mayor, y, en el segundo, el trigo de primavera, sembrado en cuanto comienza el deshielo, y de menos rendimiento hasta que la simiente ha sido tratada por el procedimiento llamado de vernalización, pero cuyo rápido crecimiento, durante los largos días de verano, permite obtener cosechas en las regiones frías septentrionales Y en los países de clima continental extremado y de alta montaña. En todos los casos, el trigo exige siempre humedad en su periodo vegetativo y, después, un periodo seco que favorezca la granazón y la siega.

No es muy exigente en suelos, aunque necesita mucho nitrógeno (de aquí el barbecho o la rotación con leguminosas), prefiriendo particularmente los terrenos ricos, muelles y ligeramente permeables. En cuanto a las labores, es más exigente. Es preciso mullir la tierra con el arado y la grada; la sementera, después de preparar y seleccionar los granos, debe ser realizada en tiempo favorable y por una mano de obra experta; la siega y recolección tampoco espera, y, si en vez de utilizar la máquina, se realiza a brazo con guadaña o con hoz, provoca una atracción rápida de trabajadores temporales de otras regiones no trigueras o de cosecha tardías; por último, viene la trilla, que también reclama mano de obra abundante, como la siembra. Cuando alguna zona triguera ha perdido parte de sus habitantes, si éstos no han sido sustituidos por la maquinaria, o ésta no ha podido utilizarse por la excesiva parcelación de la propiedad, disminuyen considerablemente las posibilidades del cultivo del trigo por falta de mano de obra.

Por otra parte, el trigo agota el suelo; de aquí que sea necesario dejar reposar la tierra (barbecho), lo que exige espacios cultivables muy grandes, o abonarlo debidamente y establecer la alternativa de este cereal con otros cultivos que aireen y limpien el suelo, como son los entrecavables (remolacha, patata, maíz) o emplear el sistema de rotación con las leguminosas, que proporcionan nitrógeno.

Se escogió la Comunidad Autónoma de Navarra por ser una ubicación donde el trigo, y en especial la variedad de  trigo  blando berdúm tienen un gran posicionamiento, siendo este proyecto un manual interesante para el agricultor.

Se ha de mencionar que el cultivo de trigo ha tenido en España una gran tradición, tanto en la siembra como el consumo (pasta, pan, etc.), siendo en la actualidad el trigo un alimento principal en la dieta mediterranea.

412 pensamientos en “ALTERNATIVA DE CULTIVOS HERBÁCEOS EN PARCELA UBICADA EN EL REINO DE NAVARRA – 2 parte –

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