CLASIFICACIÓN DE LOS GLÚCIDOS

En función a la complejidad de su estructura molecular, se clasifican así:
MONOSACÁRIDOS: o azúcares simples son glúcidos más elementales. En su estructura poseen de tres a ocho átomos de carbono por una sola molécula. Ejemplo: Glucosa, fructosa, galactosa
OLIGOSACÁRIDOS: Formados por unidades de monosacáridos de 2 a 8 que se unen entre sí mediante un enlace O-glucocídico. Los más conocidos son los disacáridos que son la combinación de 2 azúcares simples o monosacáridos. Ejemplo: Sacarosa, maltosa, lactosa
POLISACÁRIDOS: Cadena compleja de azúcares. Contienen más de 10 moléculas de monosacáridos.
La gran parte de la energía glucídica que se ingiere es proveniente de ellos, pero no todos son fuentes de energía para el hombre, ya que no todos pueden ser descompuestos por el organismo en azúcares simples.
Los polisacáridos se clasifican en homopolisacáridos y heteropolisacáridos.

Homopolisacáridos: Están constituidos por una sola clase de monosacáridos que se va repitiendo.
A este grupo pertenecen el almidón (origen vegetal), el glucógeno (origen animal) y la celulosa (componente estructural de la pared celular de los vegetales).
Heteropolisacáridos Están constituidos por distintas unidades de monosacáridos o derivados de éstos. Pertenecen el ácido hialurónico, que forma parte del tejido conectivo; la condroitina, que constituye los cartílagos de los huesos; la heparina, que se localiza en hígado y en el pulmón, etc.
Otros heteropolisacáridos son el agar-agar, las gomas, las pectinas, los alginatos y la hemicelulosa.
Los hidratos de carbono se absorben en el intestino y son una fuente muy rápida de energía. Los azúcares más complejos (disacáridos y polisacáridos) deben ser transformados en azúcares más sencillos (monosacáridos) para ser asimilados
Nutricionalmente, los glúcidos son considerados como macro nutrientes por la cantidad neta del material aportado a la dieta, pero también aportan fibra dietética y micronutrientes esenciales que son las vitaminas y minerales.

Autor: Lupe Rossanna Mendieta Mendieta

 

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