El río en Campos de Castilla de Antonio Machado

En los poemas de Antonio Machado, el Duero es para él un referente estrechamente vinculado con la belleza y su añoranza de Soria:

 

…¡ Oh, en el azul, vosotros, viajeras golondrinas

  que vais al joven Duero, rebaños de merinos,

  con rumbo hacia las altas praderas numantinas,

  por las cañadas hondas y al sol de los caminos;

  hayedos y pinares que cruza el ágil ciervo,

  montañas, serrijones, lomazos, parameras…

  …¡ Adiós, tierra de Soria; adios el alto llano

  cercado de colinas y crestas militares

  alcores y roquedas del yermo castellano,

  fantasmas de robledos y sombras de encinares!…

(Poema CXVI, Poesías completas, p.193)

 

… El enlutado, la mano en la mejilla, medita ensimismado.

  Cuando el correo llegue, que el caballero aguarda,

  la tarde habrá caído sobre la tierra parda.

  Todavía los grises serrijones,

  con ruinas de encinares y mellas de aluviones,

  las lomas azuladas, las agrias barranqueras,

 

picotas y colina, ribazos y laderas

  del páramo sombrío por donde cruza el Duero,

  darán al sol de ocaso su resplandor de acero…

(Poemas CXVII, Poesías completas, p.194)

 

Cuando a veces, el poeta fija su mirada en el sereno paisaje soriano, el Duero le recuerda algo trascendental; sobre todo, el claro contraste entre el pasado glorioso y la triste tragedia de su patria en el noventa y ocho. Eso le lleva a escribir la sociedad española de su época. El río Duero, pues, actúa como línea divisoria que divide España en dos: una que sueña y otra que duerme. Pese a los malos momentos que pasa, el poeta no se rinde, e intenta  transmitir un mensaje de esperanza, para que la patria vuelva a revivir.

 

-El Duero cruza el corazón de roble
de Iberia y de Castilla- ¡Oh, tierra triste y noble,
la de los altos llanos y yermos y roquedas,
de campos sin arados, regatos ni arboledas;
decrépitas ciudades, caminos sin mesones,
y atónitos palurdos sin danzas ni canciones
que aún van, abandonando el mortecino hogar,
como tus largos ríos, Castilla, hacia la mar!
Castilla miserable, ayer dominadora,
envuelta en sus andrajos desprecia cuanto ignora.

 

¿Espera, duerme o sueña? ¿La sangre derramada
recuerda, cuando tuvo la fiebre de la espada?
Todo se mueve, fluye, discurre, corre o gira;
cambian la mar y el monte y el ojo que los mira.
¿Pasó? Sobre sus campos aún el fantasma yerra
de un pueblo que ponía a Dios sobre la guerra….

(Pomea XCVIII, Poesias completas, p.137)

 

Antes del nacimiento de Antonio Machado, el Duero, como otros ríos grandes de España, nutrió silenciosamente sus orillas con su agua abundante siglo tras siglo. No obstante, a causa de un encuentro mágico con el poeta sevillano, este río,  el más importante del noroeste de la Península Ibérica, no sólo adornó la tierra con el ritmo peculiar en los versos, sino también se hizo una leyenda de ternura, una leyenda perenne que nos muestra el contraste entre la eternidad y la efímera vida humana, que enriqueció la musa y el alma del poeta.

 

…¡ Oh Duero, tu agua corre

y correrá mientras las nieves blancas

de enero el sol de mayo

haga fluir por hoces y barrancas,

mientras tengan las sierras su turbante

de nieve y de tormenta.

Y brille el olifante

del sol, tras de la nube cenicienta !…

 

¿ Y el viejo romancero

fue el sueño de un juglar unto a tu orilla ?

¿ Acaso como tú y por siempre, Duero,

irá corriendo hacia la mar Castilla ?

(Poema CII, Poesías completas, p.143)

Autor:  Wang Jung

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