Funciones y características del tratamiento de la fisioterapia

En la actualidad, la terapia se define como un conjunto de conocimientos y aplicaciones clínicas seleccionadas para su eliminación o la resolución de los trastornos y disfunciones del movimiento o neuro-músculo-articulares.

El papel del fisioterapeuta es, pues, minimizar la diferencia entre la capacidad actual del individuo para llevar a cabo las tareas de la vida cotidiana y su capacidad deseable. En este contexto, los servicios de terapia física pueden ser buscados por las personas que no muestran daños, pero que desean mejorar el rendimiento físico general, o para prevenir el riesgo de enfermedad o lesión.

A pesar de esta posibilidad, los servicios de fisioterapia son frecuentados sobre todo, en los pacientes con impedimentos físicos asociados con la lesión, enfermedad o los trastornos que causan incapacidad. Para que una terapia física ocurra, es necesario que el profesional conozca el proceso de la discapacidad del paciente. Este conocimiento proporciona la base teórica necesaria para la comprensión de la relación entre función y la enfermedad.

Hay varios modelos que explican el proceso discapacidad. A pesar de las distinciones, todos ellos abordar relaciones entre los cuatro componentes principales, a saber: la patología aguda o alteraciones crónicas, limitaciones funcionales y discapacidades.

La artritis reumatoide, cáncer de mama o los accidentes cerebro vasculares son ejemplos de la amplia variedad de condiciones que los fisioterapeutas tratar regularmente.  Estos últimos signos y síntomas que reflejan deterioro de uno o más de los siguientes sistemas: musculo esquelético, cardio respiratoria neuromuscular, y el tejido.

En la mayor parte de los compromisos de estos sistemas del cuerpo son el resultado de alteraciones en la función fisiológica o estructura orgánica. La fisiopatología es por lo tanto, la información básica esencial para la fisioterapeuta,  pero no determina el tratamiento a realizar.

En fisioterapia, considerar el asunto compromisos sólo funcionalmente relevantes, es decir, aquellos que están directamente relacionadas con las limitaciones funcionales. En cuanto al dominio físico, las limitaciones funcionales se refieren a movimientos globales del cuerpo que están involucradas en actividades básicas de la vida diaria (por ejemplo, bañarse, vestirse, comer), o llevar a cabo tareas más complejas como el mantenimiento de la casa.

Por lo tanto, las limitaciones en el desempeño de las tareas sensoriomotoras como levantarse y sentarse, alcanzar y sostener objetos, o de pie, son los ejemplos más comunes de las limitaciones funcionales relacionadas con las tareas físicas. Cuando los compromisos y las limitaciones funcionales son de tal gravedad, hace imposible la recuperación del individuo, y por tanto, existe la percepción de la discapacidad. Por ejemplo, limitaciones funcionales como levantarse del suelo, o un asiento.

El deterioro debido a una disminución de la fuerza en los cuádriceps, puede causar discapacidad en las diversas áreas de la vida diaria (por ejemplo, incapacidad para entrar y salir de un coche sin ayuda).

De este modo, el enfoque de la terapia implica una serie de etapas interconectadas que permite la realización de un tratamiento eficaz para las necesidades del paciente. Estos pasos incluyen:

(1) evaluación de los niveles actuales de la función y la disfunción del paciente.

(2) la organización, análisis e interpretación de los datos de evaluación.

(3) establecimiento de objetivos en el corto y largo plazo.

(4) desarrollo de un plan de tratamiento adecuado para el conjunto de objetivos.

(5) tratamiento eficaz del paciente

(6) examinar al paciente y los resultados del tratamiento.

El primer paso se refiere a la evaluación del paciente (1) e incluye la recolección de los datos objetivos y subjetivos. Para este fin, el terapeuta puede consultar la historia clínica, realizar una entrevista o la evaluación de la discapacidad a través de las pruebas de detección (por ejemplo, prueba de la amplitud movimiento).

La segunda etapa se refiere al análisis de los datos que se recogieron. La datos de la evaluación debe ser organizada y analizada con el fin de clasificar en orden dentro de la vida diaria del paciente, y luego identificar las dificultades que pueden estar relacionados con el problema.

El conocimiento del proceso de la discapacidad ofrece un marco teórico para determinar el tratamiento, así como las prioridades para la intervención. Después de evaluar la capacidad funcional del paciente, los fisioterapeutas pueden establecer metas. Los objetivos a largo plazo reflejan el nivel de rendimiento para el paciente al final de la rehabilitación. Por lo general, estos objetivos definen las capacidades del individuo en relación con las actividades de la vida diaria (por ejemplo, el paciente será independiente en todas las actividades de higiene).

Autor: Manuel Rozalen

432 pensamientos en “Funciones y características del tratamiento de la fisioterapia

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