GRASAS DURANTE EL EJERCICIO

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Las principales fuentes de energía para la producción de ATP son los carbohidratos en forma de glucógeno muscular y las grasas en forma de ácidos grasos. En un ejercicio constante ambos pueden ser convertidos en Acetil-CoA para su posterior oxidación en el ciclo ácido cítrico. Durante el ejercicio se puede usar una mezcla de ambas fuentes de energía.
Una dieta rica en grasa no parece mejorar el rendimiento, en realidad puede incluso perjudicarlo si contribuye a producir una distensión abdominal debido al retraso del vaciamiento gástrico asociado al consumo de grasas.
El ejercicio físico hace que se produzca una serie de estímulos nerviosos, metabólicos y hormonales que llevarán a un ritmo incrementado de utilización de grasa, por una parte, y de movilización de la misma, por la otra.
La oxidación de los ácidos grasos libres (AGL) procedentes de la grasa movilizada aumentará progresivamente, dentro de las mitocondrias de las células musculares. Como resultado de esto, disminuirá la concentración de AGL dentro de las células musculares, lo cual estimulará la captación de AGL procedentes de la sangre. El aumento del flujo de sangre hacia el músculo es el primer paso para suministrar más AGL a las células musculares. Este proceso estimula la lipólisis, mediante una disminución de la insulina circulante y un aumento de la actividad del sistema nervioso central.

Los distintos pasos que llevan hasta un aumento en la oxidación de la grasa son numerosos y complejos. Esta es la principal razón por la que la energía se obtiene más fácilmente de carbohidratos y la proveniente de lípidos tardar en alcanzarse.
Los AGL contenidos en el tejido adiposo quedan disponibles durante un largo período de tiempo, una vez que se ha llegado a un estado metabólico estacionario.
La disponibilidad de hidratos de carbono será uno de los factores que limite el tiempo de rendimiento, ya que la grasa, es una fuente inadecuada de energía cuando el ejercicio es de alta intensidad.
El entrenamiento regular de resistencia aumenta la capacidad del músculo esquelético para emplear lípidos como fuente de energía. Un aumento en la utilización de la grasa como fuente de energía durante ejercicios de resistencia permitirá al atleta reducir el empleo de hidratos de carbono para una intensidad fija de ejercicio. Esto, a su vez, ahorrará los hidratos endógenos y retrasará la aparición de fatiga.

Autor: Lupe Rossanna Mendieta Mendieta

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