Heterogeneidad de usos versus funcionalismo

Las ventajas sociales de una ciudad compacta son, quizás, el argumento que mejor soporta este modelo: la elevada densidad de la población produce una heterogeneidad importante y diversidad social, especialmente cuando ésta contiene una gran variedad de tipologías y de entornos funcionales . Sin embargo, las nuevas urbanizaciones tienden a situarse de manera particularmente dispersa los usos y funciones diferentes que convergen en el desarrollo urbano.

A partir de la Carta de Atenas de 1933 se empezaron a planificar las nuevas urbanizaciones con criterios de funcionalidad estricta, con una relación prácticamente unívoca entre función (comercio, oficinas, residencia, docencia, ocio, etc.) Y territorio. La conexión entre las diferentes funciones sólo se podía efectuar mediante una red de vías de transporte público y privado. De esta manera, la propia red de la movilidad se convirtió en un elemento estructurante del territorio, y en función de este hecho se dispondrían las actividades económicas, hasta llegar a una red estructural hecha para delimitar polígonos monofuncionales.

Obviamente, en la ciudad dispersa ya la alta complejidad de las redes de movilidad, se añadiría la complejidad de la red propia de servicios técnicos de distribución de agua, de luz, de saneamiento, etc., Que en caso de ser enterrados conllevarían un gasto muy elevado, y en caso de ser aéreos una ocupación del territorio muy extensa.

La separación de las funciones provocaría una fuerte disgregación social, y una homologación de individuos de categoría similar (estudiantes con estudiantes, obreros con obreros, financieros con financieros), con una escasa posibilidad de intercambios sociales y culturales; hasta llegar al límite que el barrio se convierta en un gueto, caracterizado por una función o una clase social diferente, distintivo y monotemático.

El gran problema de los polígonos monofuncionales es precisamente el de la reducida utilización que se hace, concentrada en espacios y tiempos muy limitados. Muchos centros direccionales y áreas logísticas, alejados de los centros residenciales y frecuentados sólo en horarios laborables, se convierten de noche en zonas desérticas y conflictivas.

En la ciudad compacta, las actividades se disponen y localizan de forma que éstas sean accesibles y pensadas para transformar la calle o el espacio público en el principal protagonista de la interacción social. Un paso importante hacia la recuperación de este espacio (con la facilidad consiguiente del acceso peatonal) es la ubicación de las funciones comerciales en las plantas bajas de los edificios.
Para contener la polución acústica en las vías es importante ubicar los espacios ocupados por los vehículos (como las áreas de estacionamiento) en niveles subterráneos.

También los espacios libres, las plazas y las calles peatonales deben poder relacionarse fácilmente entre ellos, sin necesidad de abrazar espacios muy vastos, sino más bien de concentrarse visiblemente entre sí en tejidos y tramas de circuitos continuos que se pueden recorrer a pie. Los barrios deben reflejar la identidad de los habitantes, por eso es muy importante recuperarlos para que no se conviertan en simples dormitorios.

Para ello, muchos autores insisten en unir el uso residencial a actividades que han caracterizado tradicionalmente la idea de barrio, por ejemplo, el comercio, la creación o la artesanía. Así, en los barrios de la ciudad compacta se desarrollan actividades variadas y locales, creando un conjunto de diversidades positivas capaces de favorecer más calidad de vida, más seguridad y una atmósfera para convivir mejor y más atractiva para los habitantes.

Autor: Diana Perilla

377 pensamientos en “Heterogeneidad de usos versus funcionalismo

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