LAS LESIONES MUSCULARES

      438 comentarios en LAS LESIONES MUSCULARES

Las lesiones musculares pueden dividirse en dos grandes grupos, según afecten el componente contráctil o muscular o bien el tendinoso. Las rupturas fibrilares en el músculo son más frecuentes que las tendinosas. Estas últimas afectan más a las personas por encima de los 40 años. En este artículo nos centraremos en las lesiones englobadas en el primer grupo. Las lesiones que afectan al componente tendinoso (tendinitis, entesitis y tenosenovitis) las trataremos en próximos artículos.

En el primer grupo, el de las lesiones del componente contráctil o muscular, hay siete tipos diferentes de lesiones: la contusión muscular, la rampa, la contractura, la distensión, el tirón muscular, la rotura o desgarramiento muscular y la miogelosis. Cada una de estas lesiones, que representan diferentes grados de gravedad, tiene sus sintomatologías y tratamientos propios. No se pueden tratar igual todas las lesiones musculares. Por eso es importante consultar al médico después de los primeros síntomas y poner en sus manos el proceso de terapia y recuperación. Una de las normas comunes aplicables en todos los casos de lesión muscular es el reposo. Debe interrumpirse la actividad para evitar que la lesión no empeore. El vendaje y la aplicación de hielo también son adecuadas para todas las lesiones.

En una situación de contractura y distensión, además de un reposo funcional y aplicar hielo durante dos o tres días, el médico puede recomendar actividad física progresiva a lo largo de los días siguientes, siempre sin sobrepasar el umbral del dolor, aplicación de calor en cualquiera de sus formas y pomadas antiinflamatorias. Además, en la contractura (no en la distensión) es recomendable hacer estiramientos suaves. En cuanto al tirón ya la ruptura o desgarro muscular, el tratamiento va encaminado a limitar el hematoma y el desgarro. Reposo, vendaje y hielo pueden ir acompañados de antiinflamatorios, aplicación de calor y masajes, siempre bajo la supervisión de un especialista. Una vez cicatrizada la lesión se remuscular la región, porque se produce una atrofia notable. En la ruptura, el período de curación será más largo. Por lo tanto, también lo serán la atrofia y la posterior rehabilitación.

Las lesiones musculares pueden tener origen en fuerzas externas (golpes, contusiones, microtraumatismos repetidos …) o bien internas, que suelen ser la coordinación defectuosa en la contracción muscular. Estas causas, especialmente las internas, pueden verse favorecidas por una serie de factores como la predisposición individual a la hora de realizar el ejercicio físico, el tipo de material utilizado, el terreno donde se realice, la modalidad deportiva practicada y la aplicación de la técnica individual, y el sobreentrenamiento, que produce fatiga muscular. Por todo ello, hay que tener en cuenta todos estos elementos antes de comenzar la actividad deportiva.

Un punto que vale la pena destacar es la importancia del calentamiento para evitar lesiones musculares. Aunque no elimina del todo el riesgo de lesión, sí que reduce mucho las probabilidades. Por lo tanto, antes de hacer cualquier actividad, es imprescindible un mínimo de diez minutos de calentamiento, con una pequeña carrera suave y estiramientos de brazos y piernas. En este sentido las lesiones que afectan el componente muscular son: Contusión muscular. La gravedad de la contusión está en relación directa con la intensidad de contracción del músculo y la fuerza agresora. Rampa. Es la contracción espontánea del músculo debido a la fatiga. Es un aviso de que el músculo debe dejar de funcionar porque una mayor exigencia de éste puede originar una lesión más grave.

Contractura. Es el acortamiento del músculo en un punto determinado, mientras que en la rampa se da en toda su extensión. Distensión. Es un estiramiento o elongación violenta de las fibras musculares que produce extravasación. El músculo ve sobrepasados sus límites de elasticidad de forma homogénea. Es el primer paso hacia el desgarro muscular. Tirón. Es un grado superior a la distensión muscular. El mecanismo de acción es el mismo pero aquí sí hay lesión anatómica. Hay ruptura de miofibrillas.

Ruptura o desgarro muscular. Si el estiramiento del músculo es muy importante se produce la ruptura de algunos fascículos. Es un desgarro parcial de las fibras musculares. Se habla de ruptura muscular cuando es un desgarro total. La ruptura muscular suele darse como consecuencia de la fuerza externa sobre un músculo en contracción. Miogelosis. Es un endurecimiento por inflamación del músculo. Pasa por un sobreesfuerzo del músculo cuando se somete a cargas de resistencia muy elevadas. Hay que distinguir entre los celos, que requerirá un masaje enérgico y profundo, y el mioespasmo, que requerirá un masaje y ejercicios de estiramiento suaves de cara a la rehabilitación.

Autor: Anonimo

438 pensamientos en “LAS LESIONES MUSCULARES

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