Poesia Tang i Song – 2 parte

      276 comentarios en Poesia Tang i Song – 2 parte

Los poemas Lüshi están compuestos por ocho versos que deben ser o todos pentasílabos o todosheptasil · labs. El pailü es un Lüshi largo, y el Jueju es un Lüshi de cuatro versos. El Lüshi comprende varias reglas de métrica y rima: entre los versos tercero, cuarto, quinto ysexto debe haber paralelismo, y en todos los versos, una cesura después de la cuarta sílaba.Además, debe haber rima entre todos los versos pares. Aparte de estas reglas, hayotros en cuanto a la entonación, que hacen referencia a los tonos de la lengua china.

Son reglas que limitan la elección de las palabras (monosílabas) a sólo aquellas que tienen el tonoa decuado para cada puesto, según el esquema métrico adoptado. Aunque la lengua chinahablada distingue cuatro tonos (el caso del mandarín), la métrica china sólo distinguedos: sílabas largas de tono plano (ping) y sílabas cortas de tono modulado (quince). El ping correspondelos tonos primero y segundo del mandarín, y el quince, a los tonos tercero y cuarto.

Como norma general, lassílabas parejas de cada verso deben alternar los dos tonos, y así, si la segunda es ping, lacuarta deberá ser quince y la sexta ping, y viceversa. Además, la última sílaba en los versos queriman deberá ser ping.El Jueju, por su parte, equivale a cuatro versos del Lüshi: o los cuatro primeros, o loscuatro últimos o los cuatro intermedios.

La edad de oro de la poesía china, el más brillante apogeo de ésta, se produce durante el reinado de la dinastía Tang, coincidiendo con el máximo esplendor de las letras en general. Su rasgo diferenciador no es la cantidad de poemas elaborados sino, sobre todo, el extenso rango de temas que trata.

En la dinastía Tang, el papel de la poesía obtiene su más alto grado de importancia y entra en formar parte de la temática fundamental del sistema de exámenes oficiales del gobierno. Considerada un requisito en la formación básica de los letrados de la corte, la poesía se convierte, en esta época, un utensilio de comunicación fuertemente ligado a la vida social, cuya función principal será la de tratar temas éticos y sociales.

Los poemas que se conservan de aquella época presentan estrictas estructuras formales que a su vez, debían respetar una tonalidad particular, propia del lugar que ocupaba el verso dentro del poema. Esta técnica literaria, que en parte era una estética lírica, hacía extremadamente difícil la composición de esta clase de poemas, y únicamente los letrados de gran talento podían dominarla con maestría. Estos letrados estaban ligados invariablemente al poder del momento: un día podían obtener un puesto eminente cerca del emperador y al día siguiente ser destituidos de todas sus funciones. Este hecho se transmite en los poemas de este período, que a menudo se encuentran impregnados de tristeza, melancolía, soledad y dolor.

La poesía durante la dinastía Tang, pues, se convierte en el principal medio que utilizan los intelectuales de la época para plasmar, de forma concisa pero nada evidente, todos los pensamientos y sentimientos experimentados por los intelectuales de alto rango que no sabían dónde desplegar todo su talento.

Autor: Wang Jung

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276 pensamientos en “Poesia Tang i Song – 2 parte

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