Violencia escolar una responsabilidad de todos.

      403 comentarios en Violencia escolar una responsabilidad de todos.

Dentro de los últimos años, y gracias a los medios de comunicación, el país ha sido testigo de diversos actos de violencia que se generan al interior de la comunidad educativa, violencia a la cual se le ha denominado Bullyng. Pero, ¿qué es el Bullyng? y ¿quiénes son los principales responsables de esta situación?  El Bullyng es una palabra de origen inglés que hace referencia a las situaciones de matonaje, intimidación o acoso escolar, siendo indicado como principal responsable de esta violencia desmedida el establecimiento educacional y los docentes del mismo por no poder controlar la situación y por ser el principal escenario de ella, pero lo cierto es que el comportamiento de los estudiantes se construye al interior del propio hogar.

Es por ello que el prevenir y afrontar las situaciones de violencia que se dan al interior del establecimiento es una tarea de la comunidad educativa , la que incluye no solo a los docentes, sino también a los directivos escolares y a la familia. Por tal motivo es necesario que las comunidades educativas, sean capaces de identificar, prevenir y remediar situaciones de violencia al interior de sus dependencias, esto sin buscar culpables, sino desplegando estrategias formativas, reparatorias y normativas que permitan reconocer que tanto los estudiantes agredidos, los agresores y los espectadores de violencia requieren de la misma atención .

Hoy por hoy hablar de violencia en las escuelas no es algo novedoso, ya que cada vez la comunidad escolar es más consciente de este tipo de situaciones dentro del aula, que ocurren a diario en la mayor parte de los centros educativos, no solo chilenos sino que alrededor de todo el mundo. De hecho, algunos autores afirman que la violencia va en aumento en vez de ir decreciendo, cosa que no deja de ser preocupante.

Podemos indicar a la década de los sesenta como el momento crucial en que la violencia escolar adquiere una magnitud que vale la pena considerar: tal es así en países como Suecia, Noruega ,Reino Unido, Estados Unidos; aunque la situación más preocupante comenzó a darse en este último, donde ha sido necesario instalar detectores de metales en las entradas de las escuelas.

Muchas veces se comete un error al hablar de violencia escolar, pensando que ese tipo de agresividad es solamente física, sin entender que también existen otros tipos de hechos que resultan igualmente agresivos para la comunidad escolar a nivel de alumnado. Según el autor Moreno Olmedilla (1999) se pueden vislumbrar seis tipos o comportamientos antisociales :

• Disrupción en las aulas

• Problemas de disciplina (entre profesorado y alumnado)

• Maltrato entre compañeros (Bullying)

• Vandalismo y daños materiales

• Violencia física (agresiones y extorsiones)

• Acoso sexual.

Sin embargo y más allá de los tipos y grados de violencia, este tema se ha puesto de moda. En los últimos tiempos los medios de comunicación, tal como se menciona al principio de este articulo, retoman el tema episódicamente para alertarnos sobre nuevos peligros y amenazas que se esconden en algunos hechos de violencia que más o menos regularmente ocurren en las escuelas.

Si bien no se trata de negar el problema, siempre es conveniente ante estos casos intentar poner las cosas en su justa medida y reconocer las verdaderas características del problema, más allá de las descripciones mediáticas, así también es necesario aclarar que las escuelas no son los principales responsables de dar solución a esta situación, pero no por ello están del todo ajenos al conflicto, ya que tanto ella como sus agentes, es decir la comunidad educativa, algo pueden hacer, como por ejemplo: establecer vínculos significativos con sus alumnos, sus familias y su entorno con el objeto de que funcionen como bases para el restablecimiento de relaciones adecuadas y cordiales entre pares. Ciertamente esto no es automático, y ni siquiera es posible en todos los casos, pero se piensa que es un proceso, tal vez un poco lento, pero que puede tener soluciones, si es que la comunidad del establecimiento pone cimientos firmes de convivencia escolar y trabajo entre la Educación, la Familia y Comunidad.

Escritor: Consuelo San Martin U.

403 pensamientos en “Violencia escolar una responsabilidad de todos.

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