Wang Wei y la próspera dinastía T’ang

Nacido en la época T’ang, Wang Wei conoció bien las circunstancias sociales y la vida espiritual del pueblo en aquella época. A partir de en su propia sensibilidad poética y de sus dotes de observación, reflejó fielmente la situación real del país en sus obras, como sirvió muchos años en el gobierno, es verdad que, entendía mejor la vida de la clase social elevada.

Y aunque algunos poemas reflejan la paz y prosperidad en la vida de los dignatarios y los ricos, hay que señalar que eso no le impidió describir la vida cotidiana de los ciudadanos corrientes. A pesar de que vivió en el período más próspero de la dinastía T’ang, era inevitable que, en muchas ocasiones, el poeta tuviera oportunidad de ponerse en contacto con situaciones sociales de pobreza o hambre.

No obstante, tales obras no constituyen en general la marca poética de Wang Wei. Posiblemente no se trata de que no prestara tanta atención en denunciar la desigualdad social como Tu Fu, ni que intentara disimular la cruel realidad, sino que para un poeta que trabajaba como funcionario de alto rango no era fácil reflejarla y enterarse verdaderamente de las duras dificultades que sufría la clase social inferior. Por ello, la mayoría de los poemas de Wang Wei que relatan la vida cotidiana del pueblo, siempre tienen una atmósfera feliz y venturosa.

A medida que en la época T’ang se difundieron el confucianismo, el budismo, así como el taoísmo, muchos literatos aceptaron dichas doctrinas, y Wang Wei no fue excepción. Sobre todo, según algunos historiadores, el poeta inclinó su pensamiento cada vez más al “Zen”, después de encontrar gran obstáculo para su carrera política en su empleo gubernamental. No obstante, la habilidad  versificadora y el sentimiento del paisaje que demostró en los poemas, en fin de cuentas, son logros valiosos que reflejan fielmente prosperidad en la época T’ang.

 

Se afirma que la dinastía T’ang es el período representativo de la madurez y la calidad del arte poético chino. Aunque Wang We no gozó de gran celebridad como alcanzaron Li Pai y Tu Fu, pero él fue el primer poeta de la dinastía T’ang que tomó iniciatiiva en coordinar el contenido poemático con la forma artísitca de una manera impecable.

Sin embargo, la característica más conocida de los poemas de Wang Wei era la fresca naturalidad. “Tan lindo y tan sencillo como si fuera una flor de loto que sonríe en el viento otoñal”(王右丞如秋水芙蕖倚風自笑), así elogió un comentarista poético el lenguaje artístico, al leer “Una tarde otoñal en la montaña”(山居秋暝), un poema famoso que cantó el paisaje otoñal de una aldea después de la lluvia. A fin y al cabo, el estilo ingenuo, el sentimiento sencillo, que brotaron de un corazón aficionado a la naturaleza, he aquí lo que elevó al poeta a la cumbre de los círculos poéticos de la dinastía T’ang.

Autor: Wang Jung

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