Zona abdominal, lumbar y suelo pélvico – 2 parte –

En tercer lugar, la columna lumbar refuerza también por la acción del mecanismo denominado «efecto hidráulico amplificador» (Norris, 1995), referente al plus de estabilidad
generado sobre la columna lumbar debido a la compresión que realizan sobre ésta les erectores espinales.

Esta compresión tiene como causa el aplastamiento que sobre los erectores ejerce la fascia toracolumbar después de la activación de los multifida, el transverso del abdomen y
en el oblicuo interno. La actuación holística de estos tres factores permite soportar cargas pesadas más fácilmente, especialmente desde posiciones que piden flexionar el tronco, liberando tensión de la columna lumbar.

A menudo, los elementos estabilizadores de la columna lumbar pueden no ser lo suficientemente fuertes y resistentes para soportar cargas que generen episodios intensos o muy frecuentes de estrés lumbar. Por lo tanto, no sólo se hace recomendable minimizar las resistencias absolutas sino conocer e interiorizar aspectos relacionados con una adecuada higiene y dinámica postural, todo disminuyendo relativamente el valor absoluto de la resistencia soportada, y por tanto la aparición de dolor de espalda y
un mayor riesgo de lesión a este nivel, especialmente en sujetos no entrenados.
Por lo tanto, conocer y experimentar situaciones relacionadas con la alineación y la disposición de segmentos corporales en relación con la longitud de palanca, ángulo articular y posición de la columna vertebral, la posición de la pelvis, la estimulación de la
musculatura abdominal y la mecánica de la ventilación pueden minimizar las lesiones por levantamiento, mantenimiento o transporte de pesos, asegurando una mayor higiene en
la práctica y una mayor probabilidad de éxito deportivo.

Cuando se realiza un ejercicio destinado a reforzar la musculatura anterior del abdomen (independientemente de la posición corporal adoptada) y en su ejecución
la zona lumbar para asumir un porcentaje elevado de la resistencia s’hiperlordotitza impidiendo o limitando el acercamiento del pubis al esternón, la musculatura
abdominal objeto de estimulación concéntrica activa excéntricamente, por lo que el resultado de la acción genera un efecto distinto del deseado, tirando y no acortando especialmente la musculatura interna, estabilizadora.

Por tanto, para el efecto del ejercicio dinámico o estático se dirija principalmente al aumento de la resistencia muscular y la estabilidad de la zona anterior del abdomen debe impedir que la columna lumbar, durante la ejecución del ejercicio, alcance (en ejercicios dinámicos) o mantenga (en estáticos) una posición hiperlordotitzada sino que oscile entre su curvatura fisiológica y una posición deslordotitzada, permitiendo así un acortamiento
y no una estiramiento de la musculatura abdominal.

Su ejecución prevalezca la tensión que ejerce la musculatura abdominal interna sobre la externa, de manera que el aumento de la presión intraabdominal dirija
dicha «pelota de fluidos» atrás, ayudando a estabilizar la columna lumbar, y no hacia abajo y adelante para encontrar menor resistencia al avance en una débil pared
abdominal anterior interna.

Este efecto es fácilmente observable tanto por el propio sujeto como para un observador externo, porque al realizar dicha acción la parte baja del abdomen se
bomba, dirigiendo el ombligo afuera.

Autor: Manuel Rozalen

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