COORDINACIÓN ENTRE JURISDICCIÓN ESPECIAL INDÍGENA Y JURISDICCIÓN ORDINARIA EN LA JURISPRUDENCIA COLOMBIANA. – 5 Parte –

  • Las normas indígenas ayudan a:
  • Mantener el orden de los pueblos indígenas.
  • Dar continuidad étnica a los pueblos.
  • Sostener la integralidad del mundo social, natural y espiritual.
  • Las normas indígenas son ecológicos, culturales, espirituales, sociales e integrales.
    • Normas indígenas son reguladas por:
    • Los mitos
    • Los dioses
    • La naturaleza
    • La familia
    • La comunidad
      • Las normas indígenas tienen por procedimientos
      • Los mitos
      • Las anécdotas
      • Las historias ejemplares
      • Las deliberaciones
      • Los ejemplos
      • Las enseñanzas
      • Las experiencias
      • Los consejos de los dioses
        • Aprueban las normas indígenas:
        • El consejo de ancianos
        • Los hombres del conocimiento
        • Los hombres de palabra
        • Los mayores
        • Los taitas
        • Las Asambleas
          • Aplican las normas indígenas:
          • Los cabildos
          • Los gobernadores
          • Los médicos tradicionales
          • Los chamanes
          • Las autoridades
          • Las asambleas comunitarias

Los administradores de justicia deben desarrollar la sensibilidad para no cometer errores de comprensión cultural.

  • El procedimiento de las normas indígenas es:
  • Oral, inmediato y público.  Esa es una formalidad, que a veces es vista como informal. Sin embargo, es necesario que los administradores de justicia entiendan que ese procedimiento tiene tradiciones de más de cuatrocientos años. Algo así no puede ser llamado informal, por el contrario vemos procedimientos y normas bastante regularizadas y aceptadas.
  • Según los usos y costumbres de los pueblos indígenas.  Se ha establecido que los usos y costumbres son funcionales y dinámicos al ejercicio de las formas de control social al interior de los pueblos indígenas, en consonancia con la interpretación internacional.

El procedimiento jurisdiccional del sistema jurídico de un pueblo indígena, para aplicar la justicia, es el que cada pueblo según su derecho propio y según los usos y costumbres estime procedente.

La interpretación de la violación de una norma tiene procedimientos judiciales adecuados, y son tratadas en las asambleas.

  • Las decisiones son:
  • Deliberativas
  • Consuetudinarias
  • Orales
  • Colectivas
  • Cosmovisionales.
  • Diferentes según el pueblo indígena que se trate
  • Los procedimientos varían de lugar a lugar.

2.3     DERECHOS FUNDAMENTALES

La Corte Constitucional ha identificado cinco tipos de derechos fundamentales de las comunidades indígenas:

  • A la supervivencia como grupo, equiparable al derecho a la vida;
  • A la igualdad en sus diversas dimensiones;
  • Los derechos políticos de participación y consulta;
  • A la propiedad colectiva de sus tierras ancestrales, y
  • El derecho a la autonomía, la cual comprende los ámbitos de economía, hacienda, política y justicia.

La Jurisdicción Especial Indígena en la interpretación constitucional ha sido considerada un derecho fundamental, y la coordinación podría ser pensada como tal, en virtud de lo consagrado en la Ley 21 de 1991 con arreglo a la protección constitucional de la diversidad étnica. La primera, porque francamente esté claro que el desarrollo de los pueblos y la supervivencia estructural de ellos ha sido determinada por la justicia constitucional como fundamental, pues forma parte, junto con la autonomía gubernamental, de los tres pilares histéricos de todos los derechos de los pueblos indígenas: cultura, justicia y autonomía, los cuales vinculan académica y científicamente dicho sea de paso a la antropología, al derecho y a la política. La segunda, porque por ser una finalidad fundamental del Estado de Derecho el reconocer y proteger la diversidad; se convierte en asuntos fundamentales de todo orden la solidaridad, el apoyo, la cooperación y la colaboración judicial.

Como corolario, por ser fundamentales, jurisdicción y coordinación desarrollarían los valores superiores consagrados en la Constitución Política los cuales guían la acción del Estado Social y Democrático de Derecho, entre ellas la de impartir justicia al permitirle ofrecerla según los propios sistemas jurídicos indígenas garantizar la obediencia de las personas e instituciones a la autoridad jurisdiccional, con la finalidad de lograr la convivencia pacífica entre los colombianos, con, suficiente seguridad jurídica intercultural. La seguridad jurídica intercultural consistiría en que la jurisdicción de la autoridad territorial indígena no está sometida a otro escrutinio distinto que el de la ley y la constitución, y que su ignorancia, menosprecio o desacato podría conducir al cuestionamiento de la obediencia de todo el sistema judicial. Para que los sistemas jurídicos (nacionales y étnicos) tengan seguridad jurídica intercultural, las normas regulatorias básicas a tener en cuenta son las que constituyen el denominado Bloque Intercultural Jurisdiccional, las cuales deben aplicarse para respetar y hacer respetar la jurisdicción por todos los operadores de justicia de la Rama Judicial.

Autor: ERIKA PATRICIA BOTERO

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