Criminología del desarrollo

      362 comentarios en Criminología del desarrollo

En los últimos años la criminología del desarrollo gana peso en la explicación de la violencia, se orienta al estudio de la evolución en el tiempo de la carrera delictiva y pone un énfasis especial en la etapa de la niñez y la adolescencia del individuo.

Así, la niñez, adolescencia y juventud son momentos cruciales para entender el comportamiento delictivo (FARRINGTON, 1992; Loeb, FARRINGTON Y WASCHBUSCH, 1998). Muchos jóvenes presentan conductas delictivas durante alguno de estos períodos evolutivos, pero las abandonan o extinguen sin una aparente o sin intervención cambios de contexto aparentemente significativos. En cambio, un pequeño grupo de delincuentes persisten en estas conductas, suelen tener un inicio precoz, y la frecuencia, duración del período y gravedad de los delitos que cometerán será mayor (HOWELL, 2003; Moffitt, 1993).

Estudiando la carrera delictiva se puede analizar la secuencia de delitos y los factores explicativos que se vinculan en la aparición, mantenimiento y extinción (finalización). En este ámbito surgen los modelos explicativos de la delincuencia basados ​​en los factores de riesgo: se diferencian los factores de riesgo estáticos (inmodificables o que sólo pueden incrementarse o empeorar) los factores de riesgo dinámicos (modificables, que pueden cambiar a peor o a mejor, y son susceptibles de tratamiento o intervención).

FARRINGTON (1996) integró en la teoría de la carrera delictiva la diferenciación entre los conceptos de tendencia antisocial del sujeto y la decisión de cometer un delito. La tendencia antisocial tiene que ver con tres factores: los procesos motivacionales (las necesidades o deseos), la búsqueda del método legal o ilegal de satisfacer estas necesidades y el sistema de actitudes y creencias que potencian o inhiben el deseo inicial. Finalmente, la decisión del sujeto tendrá que ver con la interacción de estos tres elementos con la situación concreta: el sujeto hará un análisis sobre el coste y los beneficios anticipados, la oportunidad, las probabilidades de éxito y su sensibilidad personal hacia el rechazo social.

Farrington distingue tres momentos decisivos de la carrera delictiva : en un primer momento , el inicio , en la adolescencia , cuando el joven sufre especialmente la influencia del grupo de iguales (en cuanto a desarrollar procesos de imitación de conducta desadaptativa ) , tiene mucha motivación hacia el logro de beneficios de una manera fácil , dispone de muchas oportunidades para cometer delitos y percibe una elevada utilidad en esta comisión ( tiene poco que perder ) .

En un segundo momento, la carrera delictiva se mantiene si el joven presenta unas tendencias antisociales persistentes en consecuencia de un reforzado proceso de aprendizaje. Finalmente, el desistimiento o abandono de la carrera delictiva se puede producir si el joven mejora las capacidades para satisfacer sus necesidades por vías lícitas , si estas motivaciones se vuelven más realistas , si los costos de la delincuencia se perciben mayores y si aumentan los vínculos afectivos con parejas no antisociales .

 (Generalitat de Catalunya. Departamento de Justicia)

362 pensamientos en “Criminología del desarrollo

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