Efectividad de los programas basados ​​en el modelo cognitivo

Los tratamientos o actividades de rehabilitación que se desarrollan en los centros penitenciarios catalanes se fundamentan en las teorías explicativas de la delincuencia antes expuestas y persiguen, entre otros objetivos, reducir los factores de riesgo de emisión de conductas delictivas y reforzar los factores de protección de que dispongan los sujetos, es decir: gestionar con eficacia el riesgo para reducirlo en la excarcelación de la persona.

Cuando Cataluña asumió las competencias de ejecución penitenciaria en 1984 buscó los métodos y los programas de rehabilitación donde tenían más trayectoria e investigación aplicada: Canadá. Ya entonces este país disponía de una amplia oferta de programas de autocontrol emocional, de competencias psicosociales, de desarrollo cognitivo y moral, que ha seguido desarrollando hasta abarcar áreas de prevención de violencia familiar, delincuencia sexual, tratamiento en drogodependencias, etc. En Europa, el país con un mayor desarrollo en este ámbito ha sido el Reino Unido, con una oferta de programas similar a la mencionada en cuanto a Canadá. También se han podido recoger importantes aportes los programas de tratamiento de Holanda, Suecia o Alemania.

Cataluña, al ser la única comunidad autónoma que asumió de manera exclusiva las competencias de ejecución penitenciaria, lideró inicialmente la adaptación de estos programas en nuestra población e iniciar la producción propia, que a lo largo de estos 20 años se ha generalizado y ha adquirido tradición y bagaje en todo el territorio estatal.

El modelo de tratamiento psicológico con más eficacia probada en la rehabilitación de los delincuentes y en la disminución de la reincidencia delictiva es el modelo cognitivo. Los programas de intervención psicosocioeducativa que se desarrollan en el ámbito penitenciario se sostienen en este paradigma teórico y centran sus esfuerzos en modificar el estilo cognitivo, las emociones y las conductas del interno entrenando los sujetos en las competencias necesarias para una vida socialmente adaptativa. Estos programas tienen que ver con la configuración de grandes áreas de intervención especializada, que más adelante se expondrán, las que estructuran la clasificación interior.

La efectividad de los programas de intervención se valora a través de los estudios que utilizan la técnica de la metanálisis, ya que permiten la comparación entre los modelos teóricos que sustentan los diferentes programas. Las revisiones metanalítiques realizadas en Norteamérica entre 1985 y 1999 han integrado la comparación de cientos de programas ( GARRETT , 1985; Gensheimer et al . 1986; Gottschalk et al . , 1987; WHITEHETAD y LAB , 1989; ANDREWS et al . , 1990 , y LIPSEY , 1992 ) . La estrategia principal consiste en obtener para cada programa una medida del efecto que genera (por ejemplo, porcentaje de mejora en diferentes indicadores y disminución de la reincidencia), que pondera la diferencia en la efectividad que se produce entre los resultados de cada grupo de  tratamiento y su correspondiente grupo de control. Estas revisiones han identificado un porcentaje medio de mejora de entre el 10% y el 15 %.

(Generalitat de Catalunya. Departamento de Justicia)

 

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