El derecho electoral y la Democracia interna de los Partidos Políticos

Ni en nuestra constitución Política de Colombia y tampoco en la ley 130 de 1994 “Estatuto básico de los partidos y movimientos políticos”, existe un mecanismo de elecciones primarias o de consultas para la selección de los candidatos, con lo cual se deja un amplio margen de discrecionalidad de estas instituciones para que adopten por los mecanismos de selección que más se ajusten a sus criterios de organización interna.

La expedición de la nueva Carta Constitucional de 1991 no cambió en nada dicho panorama, teniendo en cuenta que si bien elevó a rango constitucional el régimen de los partidos políticos, no señaló de manera perentoria el mecanismo que deberían utilizar para la selección de candidatos, como tampoco lo exigió la nueva ley de partidos de 1994. No obstante, el legislador sí procuró incentivar el uso de dicho mecanismo con la asistencia que debe prestar el Estado para su realización, asistencia que se traduce, entre otras en el suministro de tarjetones electorales y cubículos, la recolección de votos, la práctica del escrutinio, suministro de instrumentos, entre otros.

Ahora bien, la reforma constitucional de 2009, incorpora un nuevo elemento interesante sobre el mecanismo de selección de candidatos, se trata de la posibilidad de celebrar consultas “interpartidistas” a lo cual se refiere que este mecanismo de consulta podrá ser utilizado no solamente para la escogencia de los candidatos propios, sino que adicionalmente se podrá utilizar para la selección de los candidatos por coalición entre más de dos partidos o movimientos.

En lo que respecta a la financiación de las campañas electorales de las consultas populares de los partidos y movimientos políticos; punto en el que quiero centrarme, y teniendo en cuenta que a pesar de que la decisión de utilizar el mecanismo de las consultas es discrecional de los mismos, el Estado favorece la utilización de dichos mecanismos democráticos, ya que éste asume los costos que se derivan por la realización de dichas consultas, las cuales están a cargo de la organización electoral con lo que refleja de manera evidente el desgaste económico por parte del estado.

Así las cosas, el objeto del presente escrito no es conceptualizar ni mucho menos explicar el tema de las consultas populares en el ordenamiento jurídico Colombiano, lo que pretendo en sí, es crear en el lector cierta incertidumbre e inquietud que lo lleve a analizar, reflexionar y a tomar una posición desde un punto de vista crítico, sobre la financiación de las consultas internas de los partidos y movimientos políticos por parte del Estado, teniendo en cuenta la naturaleza y finalidad que buscan los mismos a través de esta figura, pues a mi juicio, el Estado no los debería financiar económicamente, una vez que éstos generalmente buscan un interés propio al interior del partido o movimiento y sumado a ello éstos pueden realizar sus “consultas internas” como muy bien lo dice su nombre, acudiendo a firmas privadas, pues al fin de cuentas y en la mayoría de las veces es el sector privado el que finalmente se ve beneficiado si el candidato al cuál apoyaron es elegido.

Considero que el Estado no tiene por qué sacrificar los recursos públicos “dineros que salen del bolsillo de los ciudadanos” para financiar a unas entidades que gozan de gran poder económico y obviamente político; unos más que otros, pero que al fin de cuentas es para su beneficio interno. Por el contrario dichos recursos podrían invertirse en verdaderas necesidades que beneficien a la comunidad y no sólo a unos pocos que ostentan gran poder, basta tan sólo echar un vistazo a la consulta que se realizó el 29 de mayo del año 2012, la cual dejó un sinsabor en el Gobierno, debido a que luego de la no despreciable inversión de $70.000 millones de pesos, el 70% de los aspirantes renunció sin previo aviso, el entonces ministro del Interior, Germán Vargas Lleras recordó que de los 9.700 candidatos que se inscribieron, sólo participaron en la consulta 2.700. El mismo ministro manifestó “Tenemos bodegas llenas de tarjetones que nos hicieron elaborar y que nunca se utilizaron”, y como si fuera poco hubo para entonces un abstencionismo del 97% según datos de la Registraduría Nacional. Es evidente que las llamadas consultas internas son un fiasco electoral.

Escritor: MARIO ALEJANDRO ATEHORTÚA BARRAGÁN

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