Evolución del Fitness

      220 comentarios en Evolución del Fitness

La industria del fitness surge alrededor de los años 1940 en los EE.UU., con pequeños gimnasios de barrio orientados al bodybuilding. Los equipamientos básicos eran las pesas y sus respectivos bancos de apoyo. Los años 1960, surgen las primeras máquinas de musculación, llamadas multistations, las que daban una mayor seguridad a los practicantes. Los años 1970 fueron caracterizados por el desarrollo de las máquinas de musculación “Nautilus” y por la aparición del cicloergómetro electrónico “Lifecycle”.

Por su parte, el Dr. K. Cooper condujo una serie de estudios financiados por la NASA (agencia a espacial de los EE.UU.) con el objetivo de determinar cuál era el sistema de entrenamiento físico más eficaz para los militares estadounidenses (Papí, 2002); y publicó en 1968 su primera obra, titulada Aerobics, en la que propuso la utilización de los ejercicios aeróbicos como forma de mejorar la condición física. Estos descubrimientos provocaron la aparición de la moda del jogging y de los ejercicios aeróbicos.

Más tarde, Jacki Sorensen desarrolló un programa denominado Aerobic Dance, en el cual se combinaban pasos de baile, saltos y carrera con ejercicios localizados, todo esto realizado al son de música alegre y estimulante (Papí, 2002).

En los años 80, artistas como Arnold Schwarzenegger y Jane Fonda fueron impulsores del entrenamiento fisicoculturista y de la gimnasia aeróbica, respectivamente. Concomitantemente, el surgimiento de diversas instituciones y organizaciones conectadas al fitness, tales como Health & Fitness Association, American Fitness & Aerobics Association, American Council on Exercise, American College of Sports Medicine, International Health y Racquet & Sportclub Association, entre otras, contribuyó a la credibilidad y la afirmación de estas actividades. Así, grandes empresas construyeron sus propios gimnasios, mientras otras negociaban colaboraciones con clubes ya existentes. Aparecen, también en este período, el servicio de entrenamiento personalizado y los gimnasios sólo para mujeres.

Los años 1990 son caracterizados por la explosión internacional de la industria del fitness. A los Estados Unidos se suman Gran Bretaña, Alemania, Francia, Sudáfrica y Japón, entre otros. Se crean gimnasios y health clubs destinados a las familias, aulas polivalentes dentro de los gimnasios para albergar las diferentes actividades grupales, y se desarrollan nuevos gimnasios y health clubs con el concepto de spa integrado. Por otra parte, se estandarizan las actividades  grupales y se diversifica la oferta de servicios (yoga, pilates, spinning, musculación, entrenamiento personalizado, programas específicos para niños y tercera edad), además de ser permanente la innovación en el equipamiento (Papí, 2002).

Autor: María Soledad Cobian

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