IMPULSO AL DESARROLLO Y MANEJO SOSTENIBLE DE BOSQUES SECOS DE ALGARROBO PARA LA REGIÓN PIURA: ALTERNATIVAS DEL ALGARROBO. – 3 parte –

En el presente proyecto es necesario realizar un acercamiento teórico sobre el Prosopis o algarrobo, en especial el americano, cuyo nombre fue otorgado por los primeros colonizadores españoles, debido a su parecido visual con el algarrobo europeo. No obstante, son dos especies diferentes, la americana se denomina Prosopis sp, género de 45 sub especies distribuidas por el continente americano, africano y asiático, destaca el país de Argentina el cual presenta la región con mayor diversidad, al disponer de 27 sub especies.

 

3.1 Generalidades

Como se ha comentado anteriormente, el Prosopis es denominado “Algarrobo” en la mayoría de países de lengua hispana, su nombre proviene del árabe “al carub” que significa árbol.

Los especialistas consideran que Sudamérica fue el centro de diversificación del la especie, debido a las grandes concentraciones que se registran en países como Argentina, Perú, Chile, etc. (FAO, 2007)

El algarrobo pertenece a la familia de Mimosaceae, familia leguminosae, la cual comprende 44 especies especializadas en zonas áridas y semiáridas, y con una alta siguiente:

Imagen: Algarrobo europeo

 

 

  • Sureste de Asia, existen tres especies nativas.
  • África tropical, se registra una especie.
  • América, se encuentran el 90% de las especies de algarrobo, destacando Argentina con 11 especies endémicas. Burkart (1976), Hunziker y col. (1986).

Existen diferentes estudios de investigación sobre el algarrobo, debido a la importancia que tienen en los bosques, en especial de Sudamérica. A continuación se destacan los más relevantes:

Solbrig (1977) detecto que las interacciones bióticas junto a las condiciones ambientales son las responsables de la gran variedad de algarrobos que se encuentra en Sudamérica.

Burkart and Simpson (1977), detecto que la especie Proposis se dividió en varios linajes y dentro de estos se han producido especiación parcial, por tanto, la especie se caracteriza por su alta capacidad de adaptación al medio.

Por su parte, Roig (1993), a partir de la observación del Proposis en Argentina, planteo la hipótesis de que el centro de evolución de la especie se encontraría ubicado en la Región Chaqueña hacia el sur y hacia el Oeste. Según el autor, esta hipótesis se fundamental en las diferentes formas de espinas, hojas y frutos, en este sentido, el Proposis muestra una gran capacidad de variabilidad, siendo una especie altamente rica genéticamente, que se adapta a los medios por sus excelentes cualidades, estas son:

  • Rectitud del tronco
  • Crecimiento rápido
  • Falta de espinas
  • Elevada producción de biomasa
  • Producción abundante de frutos
  • Resistencia a las diferentes presiones ambientales y antrópicas genética
  • Alta capacidad de asimilación de lluvias.
  • Resistencia a la sequia
  • Propagación vegetativa exitosa

Como se observa, esta especie crece prácticamente en ambientes con escasa precipitaciones, lo que hace del algarrobo una opción ideal para la reforestación. (FAO, 2007)

En relación a Argentina, actualmente existen diferentes programas para conservar el germoplasma como por ejemplo el Banco de Germoplasma para el género Prosopis en Argentina, del Laboratorio de Recursos Nativos y Ecología FCA-UNC, en la actualidad tiene como objetivo:

  • Conservar semillas puras
  • Conservación de bolsas de papel madera perfectamente identificadas por fichas y conservadas a menos de 17°C

Autor: Bernardo

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