LÍPIDOS

      390 comentarios en LÍPIDOS

Las grasas, también llamadas lípidos, conjuntamente con los carbohidratos representan la mayor fuente de energía para el organismo. Las grasas son compuestos orgánicos de carbono, hidrógeno y oxígeno al igual que los Carbohidratos
Los compuestos lipídicos que mayormente están en nuestro cuerpo son:
TRIGLICÉRIDOS Y ÁCIDOS GRASOS
Los ácidos grasos son compuestos constituidos por carbono, hidrógeno y oxígeno, y se diferencian de acuerdo al número de dobles enlaces, es decir relacionado con la saturación de la molécula o por el largo de la cadena que tiene que ver con el número de carbonos en ella.
Entonces por lo expuesto arriba podemos decir que los ácidos grasos pueden ser.
Saturados:
Los ácidos grasos están completamente saturados con la máxima cantidad de hidrógenos, todos sus átomos de carbono están unidos a átomos de hidrogeno. Las grasas con mayor parte de saturados son sólidos a temperatura ambiente y la mayor parte son de procedencia animal.
La grasa saturada está presente generalmente en alimentos de origen animal terrestre y en sus derivados como embutidos, leche mantequilla, quesos, etc.
En el reino vegetal lo encontramos en el aceite de coco y en el de palma.
Los ácidos grasos saturados están considerados como causantes de enfermedades cardiacas porque aumenta el colesterol total y el de lipoproteínas de baja densidad

(LDL) en la sangre. La ingesta de estas grasas no debe exceder del 10% de la ingesta diaria.
Un deportista debe evitar este tipo de grasas ya que no dan ningún aporte positivo
Poliinsaturados:
Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados tienen la menor cantidad de hidrogeno, sus cadenas contienen dos o más enlaces.
Estas grasas no contienen los efectos nocivos como la grasa saturada, pero si ingerimos más de lo requerido podría llevarnos a una patología como la obesidad.
Esta grasa la encontramos en los pescados azules, en aceites de semillas y frutos secos como soja, maíz, maní etc.
Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados reducen los niveles de LDL-colesterol de la sangre, también puede disminuir levemente el HDL colesterol beneficioso para nuestro organismo, es por esto que su ingesta no debe exceder del 10% de la ingesta calórica.
En estas grasas poliinsaturadas podemos encontrar los ácidos grasos esenciales, es decir estas no se elaboran en el cuerpo y la adquirimos en los alimentos. Los agrupamos en Omegas-3, derivados del ácido alfa linoléico y los omega-6, derivados del acido linolénico

Monoinsaturadas:
Las grasas monoinsaturadas tienen menos hidrógeno porque sus cadenas de carbono contienen un enlace doble o insaturado.
Los aceites ricos en grasas monoinsaturadas por lo regular son líquidos a temperatura ambiente,
Las fuentes ricas en grasas monoinsaturadas son el aceite de oliva, aguacate, avellanas, almendras, aceitunas.
Son grasas que deben estar presentes en un 15% de ingesta diaria, siendo un requerimiento de 30% para grasas.
Estas grasas monoinsaturadas nos brindan muchos beneficios a nuestro organismo: Disminuye el colesterol plasmático total y el colesterol LDL Aumenta los niveles de HDL Estimula la producción de eicosanoides antiagregantes y vasodilatadores Disminuye la capacidad de oxidación de las LDL lo que implica un menor riesgo aterógeno. Disminuye la presión arterial Interviene en la coagulación de la sangre disminuyendo la actividad procoagulante y aumentando la fribinolítica.
FOSFOLÍPIDOS
Los fosfolípidos de la dieta también aportan ácidos grasos, aunque en menor proporción que los triglicéridos. Incluyen fósforo en sus moléculas y sus funciones son distintas a las de los triglicéridos. Los fosfolípidos de la dieta ayudan a la digestión y absorción de la grasa.

COLESTEROL
Su estructura es completamente diferente a la de los ácidos grasos. No es considerado un nutriente esencial pero, sin embargo, es fundamental por sus diversas funciones.
El organismo sintetiza colesterol en el hígado por lo que debe haber un equilibrio entre el colesterol que sintetizamos y el colesterol que ingerimos. Si hay demasiado colesterol en nuestro organismo este se irá depositando en las arterias y venas poco a poco pegándose en ellas disminuyendo el diámetro de estos vasos sanguíneos, lo que origina enfermedades cardiovasculares (arterosclerosis, infarto cerebral y cardiaco)
El consumo de grasa saturada aumenta los niveles de colesterol en la sangre, mientras que la grasa insaturada los disminuye.

Autor: Lupe Rossanna Mendieta Mendieta

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