PENSAMIENTO NARRATIVO

      428 comentarios en PENSAMIENTO NARRATIVO

Jerome S. Bruner  (1991) psicólogo cognitivo – social reconoce que  no es la biología sino la cultura lo que moldea la vida y la mente humana, “Y esto lo consigue imponiendo patrones inherentes a los sistemas simbólicos de la cultura: sus modalidades de lenguaje y discurso, las formas de explicación lógica y narrativa, y los patrones de vida comunitaria mutuamente interdependientes” (p.23). Por lo tanto la interacción que los sujetos hacen en la cultura es lo que permite la creación de significados, los cuales determinan el sentido que ellos le dan al mundo y a su propia existencia. Para comprender como actúan y funcionan los individuos es necesario entender que “los seres humanos no terminan en su propia piel; son expresión de la cultura”Clyde Kluckhohn citado en. Bruner. 1991, p.28). Bruner (1988) planteo dos modalidades de funcionamiento del pensamiento las cuales son:

• Paradigmática o lógico – científica: se ocupa de causas generales y de su determinación y emplea procedimientos para asegurar referencias verificables; su lenguaje está regulado por requisitos de coherencia y no contradicciones.

• Narrativa: se ocupa básicamente de un tipo específico de acto de habla: de una narración. El pensamiento narrativo, de la misma manera que un relato, incorpora la realidad social y cobra sentido a partir de agentes, ambientes, escenarios, intencionalidad, relaciones y acción.

El pensamiento narrativo es el que permite que los individuos signifiquen su realidad, ya que este facilita que los sujetos expongan sus creencias, intenciones y formas de relacionarse en los diferentes espacios y con los otros. Dando más importancia a lo verosímil que a la realidad. Es decir que sus argumentos en muchos casos no están mediados por pensamientos lógicos – científicos, sino son extraídos de la cultura, de los imaginarios colectivos, es la forma como un grupo le da sentido a sus experiencias de vida. Esta concepción del pensamiento narrativo se acerca mucho a lo que se concibe como representación social, dando prioridad a la influencia que en este tiene la cultura y el lenguaje.

En las narraciones las personas exponen explícita o implícitamente sus posturas morales, además, se puede reconocer las interpretaciones y significaciones que tienen las cosas para ellos, es por esto que Bruner afirma que las historias “no solo tienen un status moral sino también un status epistemológico” (1991, p 62). Es de resaltar que para comprender una narración es necesario conocer el contexto, las prácticas culturales que se desarrollan en este, teniendo en cuenta que en las interacciones sociales se le daría gran importancia a lo que se dice antes, durante y después de actuar, de esta manera “decir y hacer constituyen una unidad funcionalmente inseparable” (Bruner. 1991, p 34).

En los niños el pensamiento narrativo necesita en gran medida de la interacción con los adultos y de consolidar el lenguaje a través de la utilización, es decir, no ser solo espectadores de diálogos, por lo tanto el aprendizaje de una lengua según Bruner (1991) sería igual a aprender cómo hacer cosas con palabras, de esta forma los niños no solo aprenden lo que deben decir sino en qué lugar, a quien, como y bajo que circunstancias. Además empieza a relacionar que las cosas que hacen están estrechamente relacionadas con las formas como se cuentan y con las reflexiones que se expresan alrededor de estas, entendiendo que las palabra no funcionan solo para contar lo que ha sucedido sino para justificarlo, explicarlo y comprenderlo.

Las narrativas serian un “lugar privilegiado para construir subjetividades y romper con las hegemonías de los discursos”, reconociendo a los niños como agentes capaces de producir formas comunicativas desde y para su cotidianidad. Por lo cual para Muñoz (prologo en. Jiménez e Infante. 2008) no se puede negar que las dinámicas urbanas de los niños y los jóvenes son primordialmente comunicativas y que mediante puntos de conexión entre lo público y lo privado, construyen identidades colectivas, entablando relaciones con los otros y tomando distancia con lo desconocido e inseguro.

REFERENCIAS

Bruner, Jerome. (1988). Realidad mental y mundos posibles. Barcelona: Gedisa S.A.
Bruner, Jerome. (1991). Actos de significado. Madrid: Alianza Editorial.
Jiménez Becerra, Absalón. Infante Acevedo, Raúl. (2008). Infancia y Ciudad en Bogotá. Una Mirada Desde las Narrativas Populares Urbanas. Bogotá: Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas.Jerome.

Escritor: Ana Graciela Galindo Salazar

428 pensamientos en “PENSAMIENTO NARRATIVO

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