Políticas Nacionales de Empleo e Inmigración Union Europea

Las políticas aprobadas por la Unión se reflejan en el ordenamiento interno de los países miembros. Unos se destacan por la eficacia a la hora de aplicar en la realidad la normativa Europea como los países Nórdicos y otros por el contrario, si bien no fracasan, también son menos proactivos a la hora de aplicarlas. La inmigración ilegal por ejemplo es uno de los puntos débiles en algunos países, vr.gr. España, Italia, Francia y Reino Unido, en comparación con los países nórdicos cuyo volumen de inmigración ilegal es casi nulo.

No es menos cierto que el idioma y hasta el clima son factores decisivos a la hora de inmigrar pero no es el principal agente en el caso de los países nórdicos cuya principal arma en contra de la inmigración ilegal es la cultura de la legalidad pues la documentación en regla es prioritaria hasta para comprar un abono de transporte, además del hecho que las sanciones para quienes incumplan las normas es ejemplarizante pero ante todo eficaz.

España no quiso quedarse aletargada y ha promovido con entusiasmo las  gestiones sobre inmigración y asilo realizadas por FRONTEX[1], aprovechando la Presidencia del Consejo[2], todo ello con miras a la aplicación del programa de Estocolmo.

En desarrollo de estas políticas España propuso en su momento, unificar criterios de admisión y acceso al trabajo de inmigrantes de terceros países, trabajadores de temporada y traslados laborales; crear un sistema de puntuación para evaluar el perfil del trabajador inmigrante para promover la acogida de mano de obra cualificada profesional en los campos de difícil cobertura y facilitarles la tramitología administrativa en un solo idioma para toda la Unión; erradicar las barreras administrativas y legales que impiden la movilidad interna laboral de los ciudadanos comunitarios; evaluar la gestión de FRONTEX y fortalecerla con recursos humanos, tecnológicos y económicos haciendo obligatorios los aportes dinerarios de los Estados miembros; adoptar el modelo nórdico de la cultura de la legalidad; incrementar los controles internos en los países con mayor índice de inmigración irregular, así como efectivizar las directivas sobre sanciones.

Otras propuestas fueron: reevaluar los convenios de exención de visados en países con mayor indicio de inmigración ilegal, sin descuidar la posibilidad de regularizar a los inmigrantes que ya se encuentren en algunos de los Estados miembros; reforzar las políticas contra la inmigración de menores no acompañados del sur de Europa y unificar criterios de admisión y denegación de asilo para evitar la multiplicidad de solicitudes.



[1] FRONTEX: Agencia Europea para la Gestión de la Cooperación Operativa en las Fronteras Exteriores de los Estados Miembros de la Unión. Creada el 26 de octubre de 2004 y entra en funciones el 1 de mayo de 2005. Su sede está en Varsovia (Polonia) y el objetivo de su creación es mejorar la gestión integrada de las fronteras exteriores de la Unión.

[2] El Tratado de Lisboa previó una presidencia rotativa inicial cuyo primer trío lo conformaron España, Bélgica y Hungría por periodos de 6 meses, para luego continuar con los periodos de dos años y medio renovables por una sola vez. España ostentó la presidencia en el primer semestre de 2010. Actualmente, desde el 1 de enero de 2011 está como presidente Herman Van Rompuy de Hungría.

Autor: margarita erazo torres

 

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