Protección del Consumidor en la UNCTAD UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT

Durante la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas para el Comercio y Desarrollo UNCTAD llevada a cabo en Ginebra en 2002, se invita a los diferentes gobiernos para que adopten con carácter urgente las medidas necesarias para poner en práctica las Directrices de las Naciones Unidas para la Protección del Consumidor. Al respecto se insta a los gobiernos para que tomen en cuenta los intereses y las opiniones de los consumidores en los procesos de determinación de políticas y adopción de decisiones y a crear mecanismos específicos para mantener un diálogo directo y constante con los consumidores y sus organizaciones representativas.  Se sugirió que los gobiernos adoptaran mecanismos para delegar a la sociedad civil algunos poderes de conciliación y arbitraje entre consumidores.  Se sugiere que al aplicar las leyes de protección de los consumidores y otras normas, los gobiernos deberían velar por que las medidas adoptadas beneficiasen a todos los sectores de la población, en particular el sector no estructurado y a los pobres.  En especial, los gobiernos deberían desarrollar programas de información y educación de los consumidores o fomentar el desarrollo de tales programas, considerando la necesidad de hacer llegar esta acción a las zonas rurales y los consumidores analfabetos, en especial planes de estudio de la enseñanza oficial y no oficial con programas de educación de los consumidores.  La UNCTAD considera que:

pese a la existencia de las autoridades de la competencia y de una legislación de protección a los consumidores en muchos países en desarrollo, los consumidores siguieron estando en gran desventaja debido a la asimetría de la información”.

Además, precisa, “el principio de la protección a los consumidores tiene por finalidad conseguir un mayor equilibrio en materia de conocimientos y poder entre proveedores y consumidores”.

Otra cuestión examinada por la UNCTAD en la conferencia del 2002 fue la eficiencia  del derecho común para proteger a los consumidores, y se concluyó que uno de los principales inconvenientes para recurrir a esta vía con el fin de conseguir reparación, son los costos de los procedimientos, no obstante, en algunos países de Africa, por ejemplo, algunas leyes han defendido el establecimiento de tribunales arbitrales de menor cuantía y la presentación de acciones mancomunadas para acelerar la reparación a los consumidores y reducir el costo del acceso a la justicia.

Autor: Gloria Smith

344 pensamientos en “Protección del Consumidor en la UNCTAD UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT

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