Psicología de la personalidad y aportaciones de la investigación bio-psicológica

Las contribuciones de Eysenck desde la psicología de la personalidad (Eysenck y Gudjonsson, 1989), y la investigación bio-psicológica afirman que existen rasgos y características individuales que predisponen a la comisión de delitos. Así , Eysenck valora que existen en los individuos tres dimensiones temperamentales en interacción , la extraversión ( rasgos de búsqueda de sensaciones , impulsividad e irritabilidad ) , el neocriticismo (rasgos de ansiedad , depresión u hostilidad ) y el psicoticismo (rasgos de insensibilidad social , crueldad y agresividad ) , la combinación de las que en cada sujeto , junto con las propias experiencias ambientales , condiciona diversos grados de adaptación individual y socialización , en el que denomina aprendizaje de la conciencia emocional .

La conciencia emocional inhibe las conductas antisociales mediante el proceso del condicionamiento clásico: asociando estímulos aversivos (negativos a la percepción del sujeto) a comportamientos socialmente inapropiados. Pero los sujetos con elevada extraversión, bajo neuroticismo y alto psicoticismo tienen más dificultades en la adquisición de la conciencia moral, ya que son poco susceptibles al aprendizaje mediante las consecuencias aversivas. Para modificar pues, las conductas desadaptativas en estos sujetos, es más eficaz el uso de técnicas basadas en el refuerzo positivo de las conductas socialmente deseables, por ejemplo.

 

(Generalitat de Catalunya. Departamento de Justicia)

133 pensamientos en “Psicología de la personalidad y aportaciones de la investigación bio-psicológica

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