Teoría de la modernización

      354 comentarios en Teoría de la modernización

Las teorías liberal y marxista, herederas de la Ilustración racionalista en su
versión evolucionista, han asumido filosofías del progreso que incluyen una serie
de etapas históricas de superación que desembocan en un final de la historia como remate insuperable y preestablecido. El final de la historia liberal es el establecimiento de la libertad individualista y su correspondencia económica, el mercado único de factores. En la cosmogonía liberal la meta es inmanente a El hombre en un sentido aristotélico: no obedece a razones externas a éste y consigue a medida que varios.

Las coyunturas históricas crean innovaciones institucionales capaces de aproximar el beneficio individual a lo social (mediante la legitimación cultural y política de derechos que incentivan la innovación técnica y espíritu empresarial), de modo que el individualismo posesivo inherente a la naturaleza humana se desarrolla con todas sus capacidades creativas. El final de la historia marxista, la justicia comunista universal, necesita inexcusablemente una etapa liberal, ya que esta es la fase evolucionista insustituible que arrasa los obstáculos comunitaristas de la sociedad tradicional que impiden el despliegue de las potencialidades productivas humanas.

Es cierto que las teorías de la modernización han tendido a sobrecargar la naturaleza  de lo tradicional y lo que es moderno, en el sentido de identificar
orgánico-comunitario y lo atomístico-individualista respectivamente. Tcinnies y Weber han sido malinterpretados en cuanto a las elaboraciones dicotómicas con los que trabajaban (comunidad / asociación y tradición / modernidad, respectivamente). Ellos no pretendían que fueran descriptivas, sino que las presentaban como instrumentos de análisis en un sentido conceptual idealiptico.

En el caso  de esta teoría se plantea el hecho de la dicotomía entre lo que representa un bienestar colectivo y lo que constituye un bienestar individual. Partiendo de la base de la necesidad de un desarrollo sostenible se puede decir que lo óptimo en este caso sería que a partir de las potencialidades individuales que desarrolla el individuo, se realicen aportes al bienestar colectivo, partiendo del hecho de que el bienestar colectivo en última instancia también es individual. Estas teorías brindan un espectro general de las ideologías que pueden ofrecer conclusiones de interés para el tema. A continuación se expone una teoría asentada en América Latina y que por tanto tiene gran relevancia.

Autor: Bernardo

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354 pensamientos en “Teoría de la modernización

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