Teoria de los sistemas

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La teoría general de los sistemas, iniciada por Bertalanffy, tiene una matriz de tipo biológico y ha proporcionado estímulos y propuestas sumamente interesantes por la posibilidad de aplicación en el campo de las ciencias sociales. Dentro de esta teoría se ha desarrollado una corriente de tipo matemático, llamada «cibernética» (Wiener, 1948), que ha dado indicios útiles a los estudiosos de los sistemas humanos, sobre todo en cuanto a la reflexión sobre la interacción entre los individuos.

Von Bertalanffy, además del concepto de relación, introdujo el de interacción, definiendo el sistema «[ … ] como un conjunto de elementos [ … ] que interactúan entre sí » presuponiendo de esta manera, la existencia de una interdependencia entre las partes y la posibilidad de un cambio, a través de la reversibilidad de la relación.

Desde el punto de vista de la óptica sistémica, es importante el concepto de «sistema abierto»: cada una de las partes integrantes de un sistema está relacionada con las demás y, además, intercambian información con el interior y con el exterior. El concepto de «realimentación» es la base de circularidad característica de los procesos interactivos, típicos de los sistemas abiertos, que puede ser positiva o negativa.

La realimentación puede tener dos efectos: conseguir y mantener la homeostasis del sistema , obstaculizando el cambio (y por tanto, negativa), o provocar una pérdida de estabilidad y equilibrio en el sistema, favoreciendo un cambio (y por tanto, positiva).

Otra característica importante de los sistemas abiertos, es la «totalidad»: todo cambio experimentado por una de las partes que integran el sistema provoca un cambio en todas las demás y en el propio sistema. El sistema es inseparable y coherente, por lo que los factores no pueden ser modificados individualmente sin condicionar el todo. Un sistema no es igual a la suma de sus partes.

Finalmente, hay que tener en cuenta la propiedad de equifinalidad, que indica que en un sistema abierto, circular y autorregulado, los resultados, entendidos como modificaciones pasado un periodo de tiempo, no están determinados por las condiciones iniciales, ni por la naturaleza del proceso o los parámetros del sistema. La conducta final de los sistemas abiertos está basada en su independencia respecto de las condiciones iniciales. Los mismos resultados pueden tener distintos orígenes, porque lo decisivo es la naturaleza de la organización; diferentes resultados pueden ser producidos por las mismas condiciones iniciales.

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