UN ACERCAMIENTO A LA ANTROPOLOGÍA PEDAGÓGICA

Son muchos los temas que inquietan a los seres humanos. Con cierta frecuencia se plantean preguntas que a menudo quedan sin resolver, dejando una sensación de vacío que en el mejor de los casos, impulsa a una eterna búsqueda por las posibles respuestas, a la creación de nuevas inquietudes y a la posible solución de algunos problemas. Eso es precisamente lo que ocurre con la pregunta por qué es el Hombre, la cual se ha intentado responder desde diferentes áreas del saber, dándole cada una un enfoque característico y multifuncional. Algunos toman como punto de partida el Hombre como ser concreto, otros el Hombre como ser abstracto, ofreciendo así importantes aportes que han servido a la construcción de distintas posturas que definen el ser humano ideal.

Aunado al ideal de Hombre, se presenta la idea de que el ser humano es perfectible, y por ende educable. Implicando así, que desde muy temprana edad se transmitan conocimientos que irán transformándolo para que logre alcanzar las expectativas que la sociedad propone. Lo anterior indica que cada uno de los individuos, debe inscribirse al contexto y a su dinámica. Ahora bien, han sido las ciencias de la educación las encargadas de estudiar la manera como el Hombre alcanza la perfectibilidad mediante el sistema educativo; entendido este como el “conjunto de elementos que interaccionan produciendo algún efecto que cabe considerar como educativo” (Trilla, p. 13), y en el que existen la educación formal , la educación no formal y educación informal . En virtud de lo anterior, la Antropología pedagógica permite analizar la manera como el ser humano a lo largo de su vida va necesitando de perspectivas pedagógicas que le permitan alcanzar la madurez, lo que se convierte en un acto totalmente antropológico.

Según Hans Scheuer: “el interés de la antropología pedagógica se dirige hacia los elementos comunes como las diferencias características de las correspondientes normas previas y expectativas culturales y sociales que acompañan al desarrollo y al proceso de la formación” (p. 14). En tal sentido, por medio de la antropología pedagógica se estudian los cambios que experimenta el ser humano a lo largo de toda su vida. La cual en si misma, conlleva a un aprendizaje constante y marcado por factores espacio temporales. Lo que confirma la afirmación de Otto Friedrich: “toda pedagogía se basa en una antropologpia” (citado por Scheuer, 1985, p. 19), pues ello encierra una propuesta de ideal de Hombre, influenciada por los valores culturales de determinadas sociedades.

La educación entonces, es enriquecida por la reflexión que hace la antropología pedagógica, pues ella estudia las diferentes concepciones de Hombre que han aparecido durante la historia, y la manera en que la pedagogía ha tomado dichos referentes para pensar en una educación que contribuya al mejoramiento de los seres humanos, y por ende de la sociedad.

Según Octavi Fullad (1997), “Educar sin antropología deja ipso facto de ser educación, mudándose en vulgar adiestramiento […] Enseñar símbolos lingüísticos: míticos, religiosos, artísticos, científicos, históricos”. En consecuencia, la educación es un fenómeno netamente humano, en el que se transmiten los elementos característicos de la civilización que pueden ser científicos o no, pero que al fin y al cabo, hacen posible la construcción de la cultura. Cuando se educa hay que tener en cuenta el para qué, y al miso tiempo, el para quién. Pues siempre debe trabajarse en función el ideal de ser humano que el sistema social desea alcanzar.

La antropología pedagógica no intenta dar respuestas acabadas. No obstante, si hace un gran esfuerzo por comprender qué es el Hombre en relación con su contexto, escudriñando en el pasado y en el presente cual es el sustento pedagógico que hace posible dilucidar el modelo de Hombre que la sociedad espera en cada momento de la historia. Paradójicamente, en la contemporaneidad existe un modelo de Hombre difuso que debe adaptarse a los cambios vertiginosos y las exigencias de un mundo marcado por los macroproyectos económicos globalizantes, lo que genera nuevas expectativas y múltiples retos a la pedagogía.

BIBLIOGRAFÍA

FULLAT, Octavi. Antropología filosófica de la educación. Barcelona: 1997. Editorial Ariel.
TRILLA BERNET, Jaume. Otras educaciones. Animación sociocultural, formación de adultos y ciudad educativa. Editorial Antrhopos.
SCHEUERL, Hans. Antropología pedagógica. Introducción histórica. Barcelona: 1985. editorial Herder.

Escritor:Paula Andrea Chaparro Cano

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